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History

Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

1. The artisans, industrial workers and peasants revolted against which one of the following in 1848?         [1]

  1. Economic Hardship
  2. Political Instability
  3. Monarchy
  4. Revolutionary War


2.
Study the picture and answer the question that follows:                                                                     [1]

 

What does the above picture painted by a French painter Delacroix depicts?                                             [1]

  1. Hunger in Europe in 1830s
  2. Miseries caused due to wars in Europe
  3. The massacre of the Greeks by the Turks
  4. Sufferings of the people during the Revolution in 1848


3.
In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option:                                                                                                                               [1]
Assertion (A): The Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
Reason (R): There was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies in the Balkan region.
Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
  3. A is correct but R is wrong.
  4. A is wrong but R is correct


4.
The first great revolution which gave the clear idea of nationalism with its core words: ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ was: [1]

  1. The Russian Revolution
  2. The French Revolution
  3. The American Revolution
  4. India’s First War of Independence.


5.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family –should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and stronger. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe. In 1815, representatives of the European powers who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon. A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.


5.1
Which of the following statements correctly describes about European conservative ideology?                               [1]

  1. APreservation of beliefs introduced by Napoleon.
  2. Preservation of two sects of Christianity.
  3. Preservation of socialist ideology in economic sphere.
  4. Preservation of traditionalist institutions in state and society.


5.2
Identify the purpose to convene the Vienna of Congress in 1815 from the following options?                                 [1]

  1. To declare the completion of German unification.
  2. To restore conservative regime in Europe
  3. To declare war against France
  4. To start the process of Italian Unification


5.3
What did conservatives focus on at the Congress of Vienna? Select the appropriate option.                                    [1]

  1. To re-establish peace and stability in Europe
  2. To establish socialism in Europe
  3. To introduce democracy in France.
  4. To set up a new Parliament in Austria


5.4
How did the Congress of Vienna ensure peace in Europe? Select the appropriate option.                                          [1]

  1. With the restoration of Bourbon Dynasty.
  2. Austria was not given the control of Northern Italy.
  3. Laying out a balance of power between all the great powers in Europe.
  4. By giving power to the German confederation.


6.
Why was the decade of 1830s known as great economic hardship in Europe? Explain any three reasons.                     [3]


7.
Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. What did it mean for the middle class in France? Explain.


8.
Discuss the role played by Garibaldi in the unification of Italy.                                                                                    [3]


9.
What measures were introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst people?   [5]

Or

    The first clear expression of nationalism came with the “French Revolution in 1789”. Examine the statement.


10.
Though Napoleon destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles. Explain.                                                                                                                                                                     [5]

Or

     Discuss five main features of the Napoleon Civil Code of 1804.                                                                                  [5]


11.
Explain how culture influenced the development of nationalism in Europe in the 19th century.


12.
Discuss the role of Giuseppe Mazzini as a revolutionary in 19th century Europe.                                                         [5]

 

Chapter 2: Nationalism in India

1. Who led the Civil Disobedience Movement in Peshawar?                                                                                             [1]


2.
Why the Justice Party did not boycott the council elections during the Non-Cooperation Movement?                               [1]


3.
Who had designed the ‘Swaraj flag’ by 1921?                                                                                                            [1]


4.
Describe one main feature of the ‘Poona Pact’.                                                                                                           [1]


5.
Explain any three measures taken by the British government to repress the movement started against the Rowlatt Act.


6.
How did ‘Salt March’ become an effective tool of resistance against colonialism? Explain.                                              [3]


7.
Why did Gandhi decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act, 1919? Explain.                  [3]


8.
Evaluate the role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.                                                                   [3]


9.
Describe the spread of Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside.                                                                        [5]


10.
The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj. Explain.   [5]


11.
Explain any five major problems posed by the First World War in India.                                                                      [5]


12.
Which event marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement? What was the limitation of the Civil Disobedience Movement?                                                                                                                                                                 [5]


13.
How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups in India develop a sense of collective belonging?                                                                                                                                                                  [5]


14.
Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organization? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.


15.
Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow:
Dr B.R. Ambedkar clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits. When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932. It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Schedule Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate. The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress led national movement. Some of the Muslim political organisations in India were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha. As relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened, each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.


15.1
Why did Gandhi oppose the separate electorates for the dalits?

  1. He thought that the Dalits would not be benefited by the separate electorates.
  2. He was of the belief that the demand would anger the high caste Hindus.
  3. He was not in favour of granting separate electorates to any community
  4. He was of the opinion that separate electorate for the Dalits will make it difficult for them to mix in the mainstream Indian society.


15.2
Who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Class Association?

  1. Dr. Rajendra Kumar
  2. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
  3. Jawahar Lal Nehru
  4. Alluri Sitaram Raju


15.3
The Khilafat movement was started by

  1. Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  2. Agha Khan
  3. Shaukat Ali
  4. Usman Ali


15.4
Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  1. After the Khilafat Movement, Congress received the support of most Muslim organisations.
  2. The Poona Pact gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.
  3. The Dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement was limited.
  4. The rift between the Hindus and the Muslims began to widen after the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement.


16.
Mark the following places on an outline map of India:

  1. Nagpur (Dec.1920)
  2. Madras (1927)
  3. Chauri-Chaura
  4. Amritsar
  5. Dandi
  6. Kheda

 

Civics

Chapter 1: Power Sharing

1. Which of the following statement regarding democracy is INCORRECT?                                                                [1]

  1. In a democratic country, respect is given to various diverse groups.
  2. Political power is distributed in a democracy.
  3. In a democracy, all important decisions are taken by the majority community.
  4. In a democracy, people rule themselves through the institutions of self-government.


2.
What is majoritarianism?                                                                                                                                  [1]


3.
How is the community government elected in Belgium? What power has been bestowed on it?                               [1]


4.
The ethnic composition of Belgium is very complex. Explain.                                                                               [3]


5.
What are prudential and moral reasons of power sharing?                                                                                   [3]


6.
“Tyranny of the majority is not just oppressive to the minority but brings ruin to the majority as well." Justify.


7.
Explain majoritarianism in Sri Lanka.                                                                                                                 [5]

Or

   Why did the Civil War break out in Sri Lanka.


8.
Explain the major forms of power sharing in modern democracies.                                                                      [5]


9.
How do democracies accommodate various social divisions? Explain with examples.                                              [5]


10.
In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-government." Explain.                                   [5]

 

Chapter 2: Federalism

1. Correct the following statement and rewrite:
    India is an example of ‘coming together’ federations.                                                                                               [1]


2.
What are residuary subjects?                                                                                                                             [1]


3.
What do you understand by decentralisation?                                                                                                      [1]


4.
Mention three different provisions of Indian constitution which makes India a federal country.                                 [3]


5.
Differentiate between the unitary and federal form of governments.                                                                      [3]


6.
Discuss five key features of a federalism.                                                                                                            [5]


7.
The creation of linguistic States was the first and major test for democratic politics in our country. Explain.              [5]


8.
Discuss five major steps taken by the government towards decentralisation in 1992.                                              [5]


9.
Discuss the merits of local self-government.                                                                                                        [5]


10.
The flexibility in language policy shown by Indian political leaders helped our country in avoiding the kind of situation that Sri Lanka found itself in. Do you agree? Give reasons.                                                                                                  [5]


Chapter 4: Political Parties

1. Study the picture below and answer the question that follows.                                                                               [1]

The above image represents the symbol of which political party?

  1. Communist party of India (CPI)
  2. Sikkim Democratic Front
  3. Nationalist Congress Party
  4. Bahujan Samaj party


2.
Who allots symbols to the political parties?                                                                                                          [1]

  1. The President
  2. The Election Commission of India
  3. The Supreme Court
  4. The Auditor General of India3.


3.
What is a multi-party system? Give an example.                                                                                                  [1]


4.
The opposition parties though are not a part of the government play an important role. Do you agree? Give reasons.[3]


5.
No party system is ideal for all countries and in all situations. Justify the statement with arguments.                        [3]


6.
Why are political parties considered as one of the most visible institutions in a democracy?                                      [3]


7.
What is meant by a political party? Describe the three components of a political party?                                            [3]


8.
According to you, which three challenges do you feel are being faced by political parties in India? Explain.                [3]


9.
What measures do you think should be taken to reform political parties in India?                                                     [3]


10.
Why do we need political parties?                                                                                                                      [5]

Or

       Democracy cannot function without political parties. Discuss.

 

Chapter 6: Outcomes of Democracy

1. Study the picture and answer the questions that follows.                                                                                      [1]

 

 Which of the following option is depicted in the above cartoon?

  1. Economic disparities between the rich and the poor
  2. Regional disparities in terms of income
  3. Economic growth due to Industrialization
  4. Equal distribution of income among each section of society


2.
How can you say that democracies are based on political equality?                                                                      [1]


3.
How is democratic government known as responsive government? Explain with examples.                                     [3]


4.
How is democracy accountable and responsive to the needs and expectation of the citizens? Analyse.                     [3]


5.
here is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world’. Support the statement.                    [3]


6.
Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities. Examine the statement with examples. [3]


7.
Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual. “Justify this statement.                                                                                                                                                       [5]


8.
Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow:
In substantive terms it may be reasonable to expect from democracy a government that is attentive to the needs and demands of the people and is largely free of corruption. The record of democracies is not impressive on these two counts. Democracies often frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of a majority of its population. The routine tales of corruption are enough to convince us that democracy is not free of this evil. At the same time, there is nothing to show that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the people. There is one respect in which democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives: democratic government is legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean. But a democratic government is people’s own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world. As the accompanying evidence from South Asia shows, the support exists in countries with democratic regimes as well as countries without democratic regimes. People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. They also believe that democracy is suitable for their country. Democracy’s ability to generate its own support is itself an outcome that cannot be ignored.


8.1
Why is a democratic government considered as the legitimate form of the government?

  1. Because such a government is suitable for a country.
  2. All rights are granted to the citizens.
  3. The government is elected by the people themselves.
  4. It is a better form of government.


8.2
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

  1. Democracies often ignore the demands of a majority of its population.
  2. Democratic governments are attentive of the needs of the people.
  3. Democratic governments are mostly corrupt governments.
  4. Democratic governments are legitimate governments.


8.3
Why is there an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world?

  1. Democratic governments are efficient government.
  2. It is always responsive to the needs of the minority communities.
  3. Democratic governments are formed by the elected representatives of the people.
  4. It works towards reducing economic inequalities among the people.


8.4
Which of the following countries is NOT a democratic country?

  1. Australia
  2. France
  3. South Korea
  4. North Korea

 

Geography

Chapter 1: Resources and Development

1. Complete the following table with correct information with regard to the classification of resources.                   [1]

Resources

Biotic Resources

Non–renewable Resources

Stock

Resources which have life

(A)-?

(B)-?


2.
Which is the most widespread soil in India?                                                                                                    [1]

  1. Black soil
  2. Laterite soil
  3. Alluvial soil
  4. Mountain soil


3.
What is sustainable development?                                                                                                                  [1]


4.
What is gully erosion?                                                                                                                                    [1]


5.
Resource planning is a complex process. Explain.                                                                                             [3]


6.
What is soil erosion? Discuss two ways of conserving soil in hilly regions.                                                           [3]


7.
Classify resources on the basis of development with the help of examples.                                                          [3]


8.
Differentiate between the khadar and the bangar soil.                                                                                       [3]


9.
What has led to land degradation? How is it caused?                                                                                         [5]


10.
Classify resources on the basis of ownership with the help of examples.                                                           [5]


Chapter 2- Agriculture

1. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option:                                                                                                                                              [1]
Assertion (A): In intensive subsistence farming, there is enormous pressure on agricultural land.
Reason (R): High doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production
Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
  3. A is correct but R is wrong.
  4. A is wrong but R is correct


2.
Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra. Give reason.                                                                                     [1]


3.
Pulses are mostly grown in rotation with other crops. Give reason.                                                                      [1]


4.
Which crop is known as ‘the golden fibre’? State one climatic condition required for its growth.                              [1]


5.
Differentiate between intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming.                                                       [3]


6.
Discuss three main features of plantation.                                                                                                          [3]


7.
What climatic conditions are required for the growth of cotton? Name major cotton producing states in India.           [3]


8.
What climatic conditions are required for the growth of tea plantation? Name any two major tea producing states.     [3]


9.
Explain any five institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of the farmers.           [5]

 

Chapter 3: Minerals and Energy Resources

1. On an outline map of India, mark the following:

  1. Bailadila iron ore mines
  2. Raniganj coal mines
  3. Bokaro coal mines
  4. Mumbai High oil field
  5. Digboi oil field
  6. Neyveli coal fields


Chapter 4: Manufacturing industries [2M]

1. What are agglomeration economies?                                                                                                                  [1]


2.
Classify industries on the basis of weight of raw materials and finished goods.                                                        [1]


3.
Why are agro based industries important? Give any three reasons.                                                                         [3]


4.
Why is India not able to perform to her full potential in iron and steel production? Explain any three reasons.             [3]


5.
Why has the ‘Chhotanagpur Plateau Region’ the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? Analyse the reasons. [3]


6.
Why was cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat in the early years? Explain any three reasons.                                                                                                                                                       [3]


7.
Textile industries occupies unique position in the Indian economy’. Justify by giving three arguments.                             [3]


8.
Agriculture and industries are complementary to each other. Discuss.                                                                           [3]


9.
Explain the pro-active approach adopted by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) for preserving the natural environment and resources.                                                                                                                                         [3]


10.
The jute industry is mainly concentrated in West Bengal. Give three reasons. State two challenges faced by this industry. [3]

11. On an outline map of India, mark the following:                                                                                                       [2 M]

  1. A cotton textile industry located in south India
  2. A cotton textile industry located in north India
  3. Salem steel plant
  4. Bokaro steel plant
  5. Jamshedpur steel plant
  6. Noida software technology park
  7. Thiruvananthapuram software technology park
 
Chapter 5: Lifelines of National Economy

1. Complete the following table with correct information with regard to the ports.                                                         [1]

Ports

Kandla

Mumbai

Chennai

It is a tidal port

(A)-?

 

(B)-?

 


2.
Which is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country?                                                                                   [1]


3.
Why has the importance of inland waterways declined? Give any two reasons.                                                          [3]


4.
What is the Golden Quadrilateral? Mention any two ways in which it will help in the economic development of the country. [3]


5.
Discuss merits and demerits of the air transport.                                                                                                    [3]


6.
Mention any three problems faced by the Indian railways.                                                                                       [3]


7.
‘In India, roadways have preceded railways’. Do you agree? Give reasons.                                                                [5]


8.
Tourism in India has grown substantially over last three decades. Explain.                                                                [5]


9.
Advancement of the international trade of a country is an index of its economic prosperity’. Justify the statement with five arguments.                                                                                                                                                              [5]


10.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follows: (1X4)
The distribution pattern of the Railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors. The northern plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the most favourable condition for their growth. However, a large number of rivers requiring construction of bridges across their wide beds posed some obstacles. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels. The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities. Likewise, it was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand. The contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes (Ghats). The Konkan railway has also faced a number of problems such as sinking of track in some stretches and landslides. Today, the railways have become more important in our national economy than all other means of transport put together. However, rail transport suffers from certain problems as well. Many passengers travel without tickets. Thefts and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely. People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway. Think over it, how we can help our railway in running as per the scheduled time?


10.1
Which of the following landscapes will be most suitable to lay railway lines?

  1. Sandy plains
  2. Alluvial plains of north India
  3. Mountainous regions
  4. Plateau regions


10.2 In which year the first train ran in India?

  1. 1852
  2. 1853
  3. 1854
  4. 1855


10.3
In the recent times, the development of which railway along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods?

  1. Konkan railways
  2. Railways in the Himalayan region
  3. Northern railways
  4. Central railways


10.4
Which factors have largely affected the distribution of the railways in the country?

  1. Social factors
  2. Political factors
  3. Physiographic factors
  4. Climatic factors


11.
On an outline map of India, mark the following:

  1. National Highway no.1
  2. Paradip sea port
  3. Marmagao port
  4. Tuticorin port
  5. Kandla sea port
  6. Meena Bakkam airport
  7. Rajiv Gandhi airport

 

Economics

Chapter 1- Development

1. What does HDI stand for? What are the indicators of HDI?                                                                                      [1]


2.
What is sustainable development?                                                                                                                         [1]


3.
In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option:                                                                                                                                                   [1]
Assertion (A): Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use.
Reason (R): Money cannot buy certain things like happiness, pollution free environment etc.
Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
  3. A is correct but R is wrong.
  4. A is wrong but R is correct


4.
State any two goals of development other than income.                                                                                              [1]


5.
Different people can have different development goals’. Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer.                   [3]


6.
Can we consider that ‘higher income’ is the only development goal for most people? Give reasons to support your answer. [3]

 

Chapter 2- Sectors of Indian Economy

1. Which of the following activities are included in the tertiary sector?                                                                              [1]

  1. Fishing
  2. Agriculture
  3. Banking
  4. Processing


2.
State one distinction between the public sector and the private sector. Give an example for each.                                  [1]


3.
The importance of the tertiary sector has emerged in the recent years. Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer.  [5]


4.
In India, large-scale underemployment exists in the agricultural sector. Discuss ways in which employment can be created to solve the problem of underemployment.                                                                                                                         [5]


5.
Differentiate between the organised and unorganized sectors in India.                                                                          [5]


Chapter 3- Money and Credit

1. Why do banks keep a small portion of deposits as cash with themselves?                                                                      [1]

  1. To extend loans to the poor
  2. To pay salaries to the staff
  3. To pay depositors who might come to withdraw money
  4. To extend loan facility


2.
What is a collateral? Why is it demanded by the banks against loan agreements?                                                           [1]


3.
How is money used as a medium of exchange? Explain with examples.                                                                         [3]


4.
Why do the poor depend on informal sources of credit as compared to formal sources?                                                  [3]


5.
Distinguish between formal sector and informal sector credit activities.                                                                         [5]


6.
Cheap and affordable credit must be available to all. Elaborate.                                                                                    [5]


7.
How do self-help groups bridge the gap between formal and informal sources of credit for the poor?                               [5]


8.
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans. Explain.                                            [5]

 

Chapter 4- Globalisation and the Indian Economy

1. Study the following picture and answer the question:                                                                                                 [1]

 

  What is the above picture trying to depict?

  1. Globalisation does not benefit children.
  2. Globalisation has created new opportunities for companies providing services, particularly those involving IT.
  3. Inability of the government to help the poor people.
  4. Globalisation has benefitted the developed countries and has been unfair to the developing and underdeveloped nations.


2. Which of the following is the benefits of foreign trade for buyers?                                                                              [1]

  1. Increase in the choice of goods
  2. Access to domestically produced goods
  3. Export of domestically produced goods
  4. Expansion of domestic markets


3.
What is an MNC?                                                                                                                                                  [1]


4.
What is globalisation?                                                                                                                                           [1]


5.
What is a trade barrier? Why is it imposed by governments?                                                                                    [1]


6.
What are the factors/conditions which encourage multinational companies (MNCs) to set up their production units in other countries?                                                                                                                                                               [3]


7.
How do MNCs keep their cost of production low and earn greater profits? Explain using examples.                             [3]


8.
How are local companies benefitted by collaborating with multinational corporations? Explain with examples.             [3]

9. What are the factors which has facilitated globalisation?                                                                                         [3]


10.
Analyse the positive impacts of globalisation in India.                                                                                           [3]


11.
Why did the Indian Government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investments after independence? Why were these restrictions removed in 1991? Analyse the reasons.                                                                                                    [3]


12.
"Globalisation has been advantageous to consumers as well as to producers." Support the statement with suitable examples.                                                                                                                                                                                  [5]

History

Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

1. The artisans, industrial workers and peasants revolted against which one of the following in 1848?

  1. Economic Hardship
  2. Political Instability
  3. Monarchy
  4. Revolutionary War

Solution: a. Economic Hardships

2. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:

 

What does the above picture painted by a French painter Delacroix depicts?

  1. Hunger in Europe in 1830s
  2. Miseries caused due to wars in Europe
  3. The massacre of the Greeks by the Turks
  4. Sufferings of the people during the Revolution in 1848

Solution: c. The massacre of the Greeks by the Turks


3.
 In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option:
Assertion (A): The Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
Reason (R): There was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies in the Balkan region. 
Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
  3. A is correct but R is wrong.
  4. A is wrong but R is correct

Solution: a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.


4.
 The first great revolution which gave the clear idea of nationalism with its core words: ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ was:

  1. The Russian Revolution
  2. The French Revolution
  3. The American Revolution
  4. India’s First War of Independence.

Solution: b. The French Revolution

5.
 Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family –should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and stronger. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe. In 1815, representatives of the European powers who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon. A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.


5.1
 Which of the following statements correctly describes about European conservative ideology?

  1. A Preservation of beliefs introduced by Napoleon.
  2. Preservation of two sects of Christianity.
  3. Preservation of socialist ideology in economic sphere.
  4. Preservation of traditionalist institutions in state and society.

Solution: (D) Preservation of traditionalist institutions in state and society.


5.2
 Identify the purpose to convene the Vienna of Congress in 1815 from the following options?

  1. To declare the completion of German unification.
  2. To restore conservative regime in Europe
  3. To declare war against France
  4. To start the process of Italian Unification

Solution: (B) To restore conservative regime in Europe


5.3
 What did conservatives focus on at the Congress of Vienna? Select the appropriate option.

  1. To re-establish peace and stability in Europe
  2. To establish socialism in Europe
  3. To introduce democracy in France.
  4. To set up a new Parliament in Austria

Solution: (A) To re-establish peace and stability in Europe


5.4
 How did the Congress of Vienna ensure peace in Europe? Select the appropriate option.

  1. With the restoration of Bourbon Dynasty.
  2. Austria was not given the control of Northern Italy.
  3. Laying out a balance of power between all the great powers in Europe.
  4. By giving power to the German confederation.

Solution: (C) Laying out a balance of power between all the great powers in Europe.


6.
 Why was the decade of 1830s known as great economic hardship in Europe? Explain any three reasons.

Solution: The decade of 1830s was known as the period of great economic hardships in Europe because

• During the 1830s, there was a large-scale unemployment in Europe. In most of the European countries, employment opportunities were less whereas job seekers were many.
• Cities had come to be extremely overcrowded. As a result, slums had started coming up as more people migrated from the rural to urban areas.
• Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from the imports of cheap machine-made goods from England where industrialisation was more advanced, especially in textile production.


7.
 Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. What did it mean for the middle class in France? Explain.

Solution: Ideas of national unity which were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism meant the following for the new middle class in France:

• Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
• Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.
• It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament


8.
 Discuss the role played by Garibaldi in the unification of Italy.

Solution: Role played by Garibaldi in the unification of Italy:

• Italy, before its unification, was divided into seven states. While northern states were under the Hapsburg dynasty of Austria, central states were under the control of the Pope. Southern states were ruled by the Bourbon dynasty of Spain.
• Giuseppe Garibaldi has been one of the most celebrated of all Italian freedom fighters. Sailor by profession, he joined the secret society, ‘Young Italy’. He supported King Victor Emmanuel II in his efforts to unify the Italian states. He organised an army to achieve the unification of Italy. People joined his army in large numbers and came to be known as ‘Red Shirts’.
• By the end of 1860, he along with his army had conquered the states of Sicily and Naples which further paved the way for the unification of Italy.
 

9. What measures were introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst people?

Or

The first clear expression of nationalism came with the “French Revolution in 1789”. Examine the statement.

Solution: Measures were introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst people were:

• The ideas of ‘la patrie’ (the fatherland) and ‘le citoyen’ (the citizen) was introduced which emphasised the notion of a community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
• A new French flag, the tricolour, replaced the former royal standard.
• The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and was renamed as the National Assembly.
• New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs were celebrated in the name of the nation.
• A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
• Regional languages were discouraged and French became the common language of the nation.

 

10. Though Napoleon destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles. Explain.

Or

Discuss five main features of the Napoleon Civil Code of 1804.

Solution: Napoleon after establishing monarchy in France destroyed democracy but several measures were introduced by him in the administrative fields by the Napoleonic Code of 1804. It aimed at making the administrative system more efficient and rational. These were:

• The Napoleonic Code abolished all privileges based on birth and established the principles of equality before law and secured the right to property.
• Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
• In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Peasants, artisans and workers began to enjoy their freedom.
• Transport and communication systems were improved.
• Businessmen and small-scale producers realised the importance of having uniform laws, standardised weights and measures in the movement and exchange of goods from one region to another.
 

11. Explain how culture influenced the development of nationalism in Europe in the 19th century. 
Solution: Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation through art and poetry, stories and music. It shaped nationalistic feelings in Europe.

• Romanticism was a cultural movement which helped in developing forms of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science and instead focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.
• Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
• Other Romantics such as the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation (volksgeist) was popularised.
• The emphasis was laid on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore not to just recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to people who were mostly illiterate.
• Though Poland at this time was not an independent country, national feelings were kept alive through music and language. Karol Kurpinski, for example, celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances into nationalist symbols.


12.
 Discuss the role of Giuseppe Mazzini as a revolutionary in 19th century Europe.
Solution: Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary in 19th century Europe. His contributions were:

• Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary who later became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
• At a young age of 24 in 1831, he was exiled for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
• To further spread the revolutionary ideas, he founded two more underground societies- ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
• Mazzini believed that God had created nations to be the natural units of mankind. Thus, Italy cannot remain divided into various kingdoms. It has to be a single unified republic.
• Following his example, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Mazzini’s opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics scared the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

                                         

Chapter 2: Nationalism in India

1. Who led the Civil Disobedience Movement in Peshawar?

Solution: Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan led the Civil Disobedience Movement in Peshawar.


2.
 Why the Justice Party did not boycott the council elections during the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Solution: The Justice Party was a party of non-Brahmins. It decided to participate in the Council elections during the Non-Cooperation Movement elections as it thought that entering the council was one way of gaining some power – something that usually only Brahmins had access to.

3. Who had designed the ‘Swaraj flag’ by 1921?

Solution: Gandhi had designed the ‘Swaraj flag’ by 1921.


4.
 Describe one main feature of the ‘Poona Pact’.

Solution: The Poona Pact was an agreement signed between Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi signed on 24 September 1932. This Pact gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils however, they were to be voted in by the general electorate.


5.
 Explain any three measures taken by the British government to repress the movement started against the Rowlatt Act.

Solution: Following measures were adopted by the British Government to repress the movement started against the Rowlatt Act: 

• Fearing that railway and telegraph lines might be cut by those protesting the Act, the Government unleashed harsher than usual measures to suppress the movement.
• Local leaders were imprisoned and Gandhi was prohibited from entering Delhi. On 10th April 1919, the police fired upon a peaceful procession in Amritsar.
• Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

 

6. How did ‘Salt March’ become an effective tool of resistance against colonialism? Explain.

Solution: The ‘Salt March’ became an effective tool of resistance against colonialism because of the following reasons:

• Since salt is an essential food item, the British government’s monopoly of its production and the tax imposed on it affected Indians across class, caste and gender barriers.
• Hence, when Gandhi decided to break the Salt Law, the move mobilised a large portion of the Indian population against the colonial government.
• Also, during the Dandi march, Gandhi spread his message of Swaraj to thousands of people through lectures and urged them to defy the British government.

  

7. Why did Gandhi decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act, 1919? Explain.

Solution: Mahatma Gandhi launched the Rowlatt satyagraha due to following reasons:
• The Rowlatt Act was an openly undemocratic measure taken by the British government. It empowered the government to arrest and detain Indian political leaders without any trial for a period upto two years.

• The law was passed in an autocratic fashion without considering the opinion of the Indians.
• Gandhiji held on the issue of Rowlatt Act because it had become an important political issue and had the potential to unite Indians against a common enemy.


8.
 Evaluate the role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.

Solution: Role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’:
• The business class in India initially supported the Civil Disobedience Movement. The industrialists and merchants in India had become rich during the First World War. They were keen on expanding their businesses and wanted protection against foreign industries. 

• Many eminent industrialists such as Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla criticised the colonial government for its control over the Indian economy. They provided financial assistance during the movement, and refused to buy and sell imported goods.
• Many industrialists began to see swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business will end. However, towards the end, they became apprehensive of the growing influence of socialism among the younger members of the Congress.


9.
 Describe the spread of Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside.

Solution: The Non-Cooperation Movement began and spread rapidly in the cities and towns across India. Many Indian students left government schools and colleges on a large scale. Teachers and headmasters on government payroll resigned from their jobs and lawyers gave up their practice. The council elections too were boycotted in most of the provinces of British India. The Non-Cooperation Movement majorly affected the British economic interests in India. Between 1921 and 1922, the value of imported foreign cloth went down from 102 crores to 57 crores. Merchants and traders even refused to trade in imported goods or provide finance for foreign trade. As a result of all this, the Indian textile and handloom sector witnessed a major boom.


10.
 The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj. Explain.

Solution: The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj. Plantation workers in Assam were kept in strict confinement and had to work for longer hours for meagre pay. Moreover, for the plantation workers, ‘swaraj’ meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined spaces and the freedom to visit their native villages. The workers after the beginning of the Non-Cooperation Movement, disobeyed the authorities, left the plantation and headed to their villages. The plantation workers believed that in the Gandhi Raj, every person would be given land in their own villages. However, they were caught by the police while on their way and were brutally beaten up. The plantation workers thus conceived the notion of swaraj in their own ways in which they thought that each of them will have freedom and land, thus ending their poverty and miseries.


11.
 Explain any five major problems posed by the First World War in India.

Solution: Following were five major problems posed by the First World War in India:

• The First World War resulted in a massive increase in defense expenditure for the British Government. This was financed by the British through war loans and increase in taxes. To meet the growing expenditures, the government increased the customs duties and also introduced income tax.
• There was continuous price rise as a result of the War. The prices nearly doubled between 1913 and 1918. This caused many hardships for the common populace.
• The government launched a programme of forced recruitment of soldiers in the rural areas which led to widespread resentment.
• In 1918-19 and 1920-21, there was crop failure in many parts of the country. This caused major shortage of food and further added to the miseries of the common man.
• The crop failure was followed by an influenza epidemic which caused 12 to 13 million deaths.


12.
 Which event marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement? What was the limitation of the Civil Disobedience Movement?

Solution: The Salt march to Dandi and the breaking of the ‘Salt Laws’ marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. 

The limitation of the Civil Disobedience Movement were:

• Most of the dalits and their leaders remained aloof from the Congress. They wanted separate electorates for the people of the lower castes.
• When it was granted by the British, Gandhi opposed it and ultimately the matter was resolved by signing the ‘Poona Pact’ in 1932. Seats were reserved in the provincial and legislatives councils for the dalits though they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
• Many Muslim political organisations also did not support the Movement. They demanded a separate electorate for themselves. The Muslims believed that the Congress had same interests as the Hindu Mahasabha and thus did not support it.
• The Muslims demanded reserved seats in the Central Assembly which was opposed by the Hindu Mahasabha. Thus, when the Civil disobedience Movement started there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust amongst various communities.


13.
 How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups in India develop a sense of collective belonging?

Solution: The feeling of nationalism and the idea of collective belonging to the nation emerged in India because of the following reasons:
• When people fought collectively to oppose the British in various movements and struggles, the feeling of nationalism was born.

• Nationalism also grew as a result of various literary and artistic activities. The idea of India came to be associated with the image of ‘Bharat Mata’. This was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. His song ‘Vande Mataram’ in his novel Anandamath inspired the feeling of nationalism in the hearts of millions of Indians.
• Nationalism also developed through movements which attempted to revive Indian folklore. In the late nineteenth century, many nationalists visited villages to collect accounts of folklore. Rabindranath Tagore himself collected many folk songs and ballads in order to inspire people with the feeling of nationalism.
• The tricolour flag became a symbol of Indian nationalism.
• In the nineteenth century, many Indian historians began to write about the glorious past of the country. They refuted the claims of the British historians who had asserted that the Indians were primitive and never had any great culture.


14.
 Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organization? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Solution: Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organization? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
The Non-Cooperation Movement started with the participation of middle-class in cities. Thousands of students left government schools and colleges in many cities. Teachers from these schools resigned, and lawyers gave up their practice. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces, except in Madras where the Justice Party participated in the elections. The impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front was dramatic. As a part of the movement, foreign goods were boycotted and stress was laid on the use of Swadeshi products. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops were picketed and foreign cloth was burnt in huge bonfires. As a result, the import of foreign cloth was halved between 1921 and 1922, dropping in value from Rs 102 crore to Rs57 crore. At many places, merchants and traders refused to finance and trade in foreign goods. People began to wear ‘khadi’. This gave impetus to the handloom and local industries in India.


15.
 Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow:
Dr B.R. Ambedkar clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits. When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932. It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Schedule Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate. The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress led national movement. Some of the Muslim political organisations in India were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha. As relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened, each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.


15.1
 Why did Gandhi oppose the separate electorates for the dalits?

  1. He thought that the Dalits would not be benefited by the separate electorates.
  2. He was of the belief that the demand would anger the high caste Hindus.
  3. He was not in favour of granting separate electorates to any community
  4. He was of the opinion that separate electorate for the Dalits will make it difficult for them to mix in the mainstream Indian society.

Solution: (d) He was of the opinion that separate electorate for the Dalits will make it difficult for them to mix in the mainstream Indian society.


15.2
 Who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Class Association?

  1. Dr. Rajendra Kumar
  2. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
  3. Jawahar Lal Nehru
  4. Alluri Sitaram Raju

Solution: (b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar


15.3
 The Khilafat movement was started by

  1. Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  2. Agha Khan
  3. Shaukat Ali
  4. Usman Ali

Solution: (c) Shaukat Ali


15.4
 Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  1. After the Khilafat Movement, Congress received the support of most Muslim organisations.
  2. The Poona Pact gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.
  3. The Dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement was limited.
  4. The rift between the Hindus and the Muslims began to widen after the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement.

Solution: (a) After the Khilafat Movement, Congress received the support of most Muslim organisations.


16.
 Mark the following places on an outline map of India:

  1. Nagpur (Dec.1920)
  2. Madras (1927)
  3. Chauri-Chaura
  4. Amritsar
  5. Dandi
  6. Kheda

 Solution: Map marking
  


Civics

Chapter 1: Power Sharing

1. Which of the following statement regarding democracy is INCORRECT?

  1. In a democratic country, respect is given to various diverse groups.
  2. Political power is distributed in a democracy.
  3. In a democracy, all important decisions are taken by the majority community.
  4. In a democracy, people rule themselves through the institutions of self-government.

Solution: (c) In a democracy, all important decisions are taken by the majority community.


2.
 What is majoritarianism?

Solution: Majoritarianism is a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority.

3.
 How is the community government elected in Belgium? What power has been bestowed on it?

Solution: The community government is elected by people of Belgium belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking people. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.

4. The ethnic composition of Belgium is very complex. Explain.

Solution: Belgium is a small European country. Its ethnic composition is complex because:

• Of the country’s total population, 59 per cent lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch language.
• Another 40 per cent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French. Remaining 1 per cent of the Belgians speak German.
• However, in the capital city Brussels, 80 per cent people speak French while 20 per cent are Dutch-speaking.


5.
 What are prudential and moral reasons of power sharing?

Solution: Prudential and moral reasons of power sharing:

• When power is shared among many social groups, it helps in the minimising of social conflicts. It is expected that the rule of majority, with concessions given to the minority communities, can help in politically stabilising the country. This is called the prudential power sharing.
• When people and the government of the country realise that the feelings and interests of all the communities of the nation should be respected and taken into account, then it is known as moral power sharing. This kind of power sharing unifies the country and establishes harmony among various communities of the nation.
• While prudential reasons stress that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, moral reasons emphasise the very act of power sharing as valuable.


6.
 “Tyranny of the majority is not just oppressive to the minority but brings ruin to the majority as well." Justify.

Solution: Imposing the will of the majority on the minority community may look as a viable option in democracy. But this option does not work in a longer run. It is because when the majority community imposes its will, it creates a sense of discrimination amongst the minority. This results in the creation of social conflict among the people which may further lead to violence and political instability, undermining the unity of the nation. For example, the imposing of the will of the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka led to unrest and violence in the country resulting into a civil war. Therefore, tyranny of the majority is not just oppressive to the minority; but brings ruin to the majority as well.

7.
 Explain majoritarianism in Sri Lanka. 

Or

   Why did the Civil War break out in Sri Lanka.

Solution: Majoritarianism is a belief according to which the majority community of a nation should frame rules in whichever way it wants, even if it results in disregarding and ignoring the wishes and needs of the minority communities.

• After Sri Lanka became independent of the colonial rule in 1948, it had two major communities, the Sinhalese (74 per cent) and the Tamils (18 per cent).
• As the Sinhalese were in majority, they introduced a series of majoritarian policies to ascertain the supremacy of their community.
• They appointed Sinhalese people to preferential positions in government and also made Sinhala as the only official language of the nation. Various government measures gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Tamils of Sri Lanka.
• This led to dissent among the community which with time strained the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities.
• The distrust between both the communities finally culminated into a Civil war, with Tamils demanding the formation of an independent Tamil state in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka. This led to thousands of people being killed in the civil war.
Thus, the majoritarian policies of the majority community threatened the unity and integrity of the country and led to a Civil war in Sri Lanka.


8.
 Explain the major forms of power sharing in modern democracies.

Solution: Major forms of power sharing in modern democracies

• Power sharing among different Organs of the Government: In democracy, power is shared among Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. This is known as distribution of power. No organ of the government can exercise unlimited power as power sharing among different organs of the government organ checks the others.
• Governments at different levels: In federal form of government, power is shared between the central and state governments. In India there is another lower level of government: local self-government. This is called vertical division of government.
• Social Groups: Power may also be shared among different social groups such as religious and linguistic groups. In India, there are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration.
• Division of power between political parties, pressure groups and movements: Political parties are the organisations which aim to control power by contesting elections. In a democracy, citizens have the freedom to choose among the various contenders for power. When no party gets a majority, two or more parties come together to form a government. In a democracy, pressure and interest groups also have an indirect share in the government’s power.


9.
 How do democracies accommodate various social divisions? Explain with examples.

Solution: Democracies accommodate various social divisions in the following ways:

• A democracy has to take into consideration not only the opinion and aspirations of the majority but also of minority. In democratic societies, the minority community participates in decision making process.
• In a democracy, no person can be discriminated on the basis of caste, religion or gender. It has to be ensured that rule by a majority does not become a rule by majority on the basis of religion or race or linguistic identity.
• Political conflicts incorporating social divisions can be solved amicably through a democratic process involving the conflicting parties.
• One good example of such an accommodation of a political conflict is the case of the Nationalists and the Unionists who resolved their differences by mutual agreement and consent.


10.
 In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-government." Explain.

Solution: Before the idea of power sharing emerged, for a long time it was believed that all the power of the government should be given to a single person or a group of people located at a particular place. But over a period of time many notions regarding the power in democracy changed. Therefore, as the basic principle of democracy it was decided that people should be the source of all the political power. This helped in making sure that due respect was given to diverse groups and various views that existed in the society. Moreover, everyone was given the right to voice their opinions.

People elect their own representatives who in turn take decisions for them. Therefore, it is said that in a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-government.



Chapter 2: Federalism

1. Correct the following statement and rewrite:

    India is an example of ‘coming together’ federations.

Solution: Correct Statement: India is an example of ‘holding together federations.


2.
 What are residuary subjects?

Solution: The subjects which are not included in any of the three lists- the state list, the Union list and the concurrent lists are known as residuary subjects. The central government has the power to make laws on the residuary subjects. Some of these are software, hardware etc.


3.
 What do you understand by decentralisation?

Solution: Taking away of power from the Central and the State governments and placing it in the hands of the local governments is known as decentralization. The basic idea behind decentralisation is that local affairs of a locality can be best managed by the local government.


4.
 Mention three different provisions of Indian constitution which makes India a federal country.

Solution: Provisions of Indian constitution which makes India a federal country are:

• In India, the powers to run the country have been vested into the Central government and the State government. State governments are not subordinate to the Central governments and both derive their authority form the Constitution.
• The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution. Disputes arising between various levels of the government are resolved by the Supreme Court.
• There are three different lists in which laws can be made by the central and the state governments. The Central government can form laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union List, the State government can make laws in the subjects included in the State List and both governments can form laws mentioned in the Concurrent List.


5.
 Differentiate between the unitary and federal form of governments.

Solution: 



6.
 Discuss five key features of a federalism. 

Solution: In a federal form of government there are two or more levels of government. Important features of federal form of government are:

• Each level of government administers over the same region, but they have their own jurisdiction in matters of administration, taxation and legislation.
• The Government at each level derives its power from the Constitution of the country. Thus, the Central Government cannot dilute the powers of the State or Local Governments.
• The basic principles of the Constitution and the rights given to the people cannot be changed by only one tier of the Government. It requires the consent of governments at both levels.
• Courts of the country act as a referee between the Central and the State Governments if any dispute arises between the two.
• Both levels of the Government can collect taxes from the people according to the guidelines of the Constitution of the country.


7.
 The creation of linguistic States was the first and major test for democratic politics in our country. Explain.

Solution: The creation of linguistic states was the first major test for democratic politics in our country.

• After independence, demands were made by the people for the creation of states on linguistic lines.
• The government after much deliberations created number of states from the Indian Union. In 1947, the boundaries of several old states were changed to create new states.
• This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same state.
• While some states were created on linguistic lines, some were created on the basis of unique culture, ethnicity or geography. These were states of Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand.
• Division of country into various states have enhanced unity and has made administration easier.


8.
 Discuss five major steps taken by the government towards decentralisation in 1992.

Solution: Major steps that were taken towards decentralisation in 1992 were:

• It was made obligatory to hold elections for choosing members of local governmental institutions.
• Seats were reserved for people belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and other backward classes in local bodies.
• One-third of the seats were reserved for women.
• State Election Commission was constituted in the states for holding elections in government bodies.
• It was made mandatory for the State Governments to share powers and revenues with local bodies.


9.
 Discuss the merits of local self-government.

Solution: The merits of local self-government are

• The local self-government takes steps to solve the problems of the people at the grass root level. This saves time, energy and money.
• State government may be too busy in looking after bigger issues in the state. It may not have time to look into day to day problems of the people in a village. The local self-government, thus, reduces the burden of the State government.
• Local bodies perform various important functions which help in the development of a village or a locality. For example, construction of roads, provision of clean drinking water, schemes related to the improvement of agriculture and irrigation are some of the important functions performed by the local bodies.
• Local bodies help in the emergence of local leadership. Because State and Central ministers and other important people are busy managing the affairs of the state at large, the problems at the local level are solved by the leaders of the local bodies. This leads to the emergence of leadership at the local level.
• Local institutions act as a training ground for the local people to confront and solve their own problems. Some people emerge as leaders who solve various socio-economic problems in an area at the local level. Many state and national-level politicians had started their careers by being the leaders of the local bodies.


10.
 The flexibility in language policy shown by Indian political leaders helped our country in avoiding the kind of situation that Sri Lanka found itself in. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Solution: Yes, I agree that the language policy shown by Indian political leaders helped our country in avoiding the kind of situation that Sri Lanka found itself in. It is because:
• After independence, Hindi was declared as an official language of the country. Apart from it, many languages were also recognised as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution. Besides Hindi, there are 21 scheduled languages.
• According to the Constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965. However, many non-Hindi speaking States demanded that the use of English continue. To resolve this issue, the Central Government agreed to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes.
• Though the promotion of Hindi continues to be the official policy of the Government of India, the latter in no ways can impose Hindi on non-Hindi speaking states.
• Sri Lanka on the other hand declared Sinhalese as the only official language in the country disregarding the voice and opinions of the Tamil community. The governments followed preferential policies which favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
• This flexibility shown by Indian political leaders helped our country avoid the kind of situation that Sri Lanka finds itself.


Chapter 4: Political Parties

1. Study the picture below and answer the question that follows.

The above image represents the symbol of which political party?

  1. Communist party of India (CPI)
  2. Sikkim Democratic Front
  3. Nationalist Congress Party
  4. Bahujan Samaj party

Solution: c. Nationalist Congress Party


2.
 Who allots symbols to the political parties?

  1. The President
  2. The Election Commission of India
  3. The Supreme Court
  4. The Auditor General of India3.

Solution: b. The Election Commission of India


3.
 What is a multi-party system? Give an example.

Solution: If several political parties compete for power and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power, either on the strength of their own majority or in alliance with other parties, it is known as a multi-party system. India is an example of multi-party system where many political parties contest for political power.

4.
 The opposition parties though are not a part of the government play an important role. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Solution: Yes, I agree to the fact that though opposition parties are not a part of the government, they play an important role. This is because:

• It constantly keep the government in check by asking question from ministers and by debating the policies and bills introduced by it.
• The opposition shapes public opinion by criticising the work of the government. It can carry debates in the legislature and in media to point out the weaknesses of the government.
• The opposition creates awareness among the people over the specific issues of national importance and raises levels of political consciousness among them.


5.
 No party system is ideal for all countries and in all situations. Justify the statement with arguments.

Solution: Political parties are ideal for democracy because of the following reasons:

• Democracy cannot function without the existence of political parties. Without political parties, all candidates would fight independently and consequently no one would be able to make a decision about any major policy change.
• Further, electoral competition is an important part of democracy in which political parties try to attract voters with their manifestation.
• A political party is necessary to bring diverse people on a common platform, so that bigger issues can be taken care of.


6.
 Why are political parties considered as one of the most visible institutions in a democracy?

Solution:  About hundred years ago, there were few countries in the world that had political parties. Nowadays, political parties have become an essential part of democratic form of governance. For most ordinary citizens, democracy is equal to political parties. They might not know much about the Constitution and the nature of the national government, but they often know many details of the local and national political parties. Therefore, political parties are effectively one of the most visible institutions of democracy.

7.
 What is meant by a political party? Describe the three components of a political party?

Solution: A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. Members of such a group agree on certain fundamental values, policies and programmes for the society and strive to follow them in order to achieve public good.

The three components of a political party are leaders, active members and followers.
• The Leaders: The leaders constitute the higher ranks of a political party. They are the ones who effectively run the government if the party wins the elections.
• The Active Members: They are the rank and file of the party, mobilising public opinion on the ground and serving as a link between the party followers and the party leaders.
• The Followers: Simply put, they are the followers of the party leadership who work under the guidance of the active members of the party.


8.
 According to you, which three challenges do you feel are being faced by political parties in India? Explain.

Solution: The three challenges faced by political parties in India are

• Lack of internal democracy: In political parties, there is a concentration of power in the hands of a few. In such cases, some members become too powerful and take all decisions, while no importance is given to other members of a party.
• Dynastic succession: Generally, very easy entry is given to the families of the members of the political parties. Under such circumstances, inexperienced family members become the members of the party while the deserving are left out.
• Money and muscle power: Because the main aim of political parties is to capture power and form the government, parties focus only on winning the elections. Many business houses influence the decisions of the party and government by providing funds to the parties.


9.
 What measures do you think should be taken to reform political parties in India?

Solution: Measures do you think should be taken to reform political parties in India are:

• It should be made mandatory for political parties to give about one-third of seats to women candidates. There should be a quota for women in the decision-making bodies of the party.
• There should be state funding of elections. The government should give parties money to support their election expenses.
• It should be made compulsory for political parties to maintain a register of its members, to follow its own constitution, to have an independent authority, to act as a judge in case of party disputes and to hold open elections to the highest posts.


10.
 Why do we need political parties?

Or

       Democracy cannot function without political parties. Discuss.

Solution: Following factors make political parties absolutely indispensable for modern democracies:

• In the absence of political parties, every candidate will be an independent candidate. Such representatives might be responsible to their constituency, but no one can then be held accountable for the running of the country as a whole.
• As societies are becoming larger and more complex, there is a need for a general will that can be reached at through dialogue.
• Such a dialogue has to be facilitated by bringing together of representatives from different parts of a country. Only then can there be responsible government.
• Political parties allow the democratic machinery to function smoothly. They serve as both policy makers and opposition.
• Parties contest elections, they put forward various policies and programmes for the electorate’s consideration, they participate in parliamentary legislation process, they form and run governments, they provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes and shape and articulate public opinion.


Chapter 6: Outcomes of Democracy

1. Study the picture and answer the questions that follows.

 

 Which of the following option is depicted in the above cartoon?

  1. Economic disparities between the rich and the poor
  2. Regional disparities in terms of income
  3. Economic growth due to Industrialization
  4. Equal distribution of income among each section of society

Solution: a. Economic disparities between the rich and the poor


2.
 How can you say that democracies are based on political equality?

Solution: Democracy is a government of the people, by the people, for the people. Therefore, it recognises the basic principle that all men and women are equal and capable of governing themselves through elected public representatives.  Hence, it can be said that democracies are based on political equality.

3.
 How is democratic government known as responsive government? Explain with examples.

Solution: A democratic government is a responsive government because it is elected by the people of the country. The representatives formulate laws suited to the best interests of the larger sections of society. If the leaders do not work according to the people’s expectations and wishes, they may not be voted by them in next elections. Thus, a democratic government is responsive to the needs of the people. For example, the government had to finally agree to people’s demands and introduce the Lokpal Bill in the Parliament in 2013.

4.
 How is democracy accountable and responsive to the needs and expectation of the citizens? Analyse.

Solution: Democracy is accountable and responsive to the needs and expectations of the people in the following manner:

• The representatives of the people formulate laws suited to the best interests of the larger sections of society. If the leaders do not work according to the people’s expectations and wishes, they may not be voted by them in next elections. Thus, a democratic government is responsive to the needs of the people.
• A democratic government has to answer the questions posed by people and various opposition parties and have to give them an account of the work done by them. It has to maintain transparency. It is in this way that a democratic government is an accountable government.
• A democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable and mechanisms for citizens to take part in decision making whenever they think fit.


5.
 here is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world’. Support the statement.

Solution: There is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world because of the following reasons:

• A democratic government is people’s own government as citizens elect their own representatives who formulate laws in larger interests of the society.
• Democracy is a responsive, accountable and legitimate form of government since it is the rule by people’s elected representatives. Democracy sometimes might appear to be slow, less efficient, not always responsive or clean. However, it has also proven to be the most sustainable form of government as compared to the alternatives forms.


6.
 Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities. Examine the statement with examples.

Solution: It is seen that on an average dictatorial regime have had a slightly better record of economic growth. While the growth rate of dictatorial regimes is 4.42%, the same in democratic countries is 3.95%. Within democracies, there can be very high levels of economic inequality.  In countries such as South Africa and Brazil, the top 20% people take away more than 60% of the national income leaving less than 3% for the bottom 20% population. If we take an example of India, we find that poor people constitute a large proportion of our voters and no party will like to lose their votes. Yet, we have seen that democratic government do not appear very keen on addressing the question of poverty. Same is the case with countries like Bangladesh where more than half of its people live under poverty line. However, it is to be noted is that economic equality often depend on several factors such as country’s size, its mineral wealth, level of education and cooperation from other countries.

7.
 Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual. “Justify this statement.

Solution: Democracy stands superior to any other form of government. This is because

• A democratic government is the people’s government. It is elected by the people. A democratic government ensures equality among citizens. Every individual is considered equal before the law.
• A democratic government guarantees fundamental rights and principles of equality, liberty and justice to its people. Thus, it enhances the dignity of citizens.
• There is an improvement in the quality of decision making of the government. This is because the government may take time to arrive at certain laws and agreements because it has to look after the needs of every section of society.
• Laws are implemented after deliberations and negotiations which are accepted by people at large, unlike a dictatorial government which enacts laws without bothering about its people.
• In a democratic government, the working of the government machinery is transparent. It means a citizen can enquire if any decision was taken based on prescribed norms and procedures. Thus, a democratic government follows procedures and is accountable to the people.


8.
 Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow:
In substantive terms it may be reasonable to expect from democracy a government that is attentive to the needs and demands of the people and is largely free of corruption. The record of democracies is not impressive on these two counts. Democracies often frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of a majority of its population. The routine tales of corruption are enough to convince us that democracy is not free of this evil. At the same time, there is nothing to show that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the people. There is one respect in which democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives: democratic government is legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean. But a democratic government is people’s own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world. As the accompanying evidence from South Asia shows, the support exists in countries with democratic regimes as well as countries without democratic regimes. People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. They also believe that democracy is suitable for their country. Democracy’s ability to generate its own support is itself an outcome that cannot be ignored.


8.1
 Why is a democratic government considered as the legitimate form of the government?

  1. Because such a government is suitable for a country.
  2. All rights are granted to the citizens.
  3. The government is elected by the people themselves.
  4. It is a better form of government.

Solution: c. The government is elected by the people themselves.


8.2
 Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

  1. Democracies often ignore the demands of a majority of its population.
  2. Democratic governments are attentive of the needs of the people.
  3. Democratic governments are mostly corrupt governments.
  4. Democratic governments are legitimate governments.

Solution: b. Democratic governments are attentive of the needs of the people.


8.3
 Why is there an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world?

  1. Democratic governments are efficient government.
  2. It is always responsive to the needs of the minority communities.
  3. Democratic governments are formed by the elected representatives of the people.
  4. It works towards reducing economic inequalities among the people.

Solution: c. Democratic governments are formed by the elected representatives of the people.


8.4
 Which of the following countries is NOT a democratic country?

  1. Australia
  2. France
  3. South Korea
  4. North Korea

Solution: d. North Korea


Geography

Chapter 1: Resources and Development

1. Complete the following table with correct information with regard to the classification of resources.                   [1]

Resources

Biotic Resources

Non–renewable Resources

Stock

Resources which have life

(A)-?

(B)-?

Solution: (A)- Coal/petroleum         (B)- Hydrogen as a fuel

2. Which is the most widespread soil in India?

  1. Black soil
  2. Laterite soil
  3. Alluvial soil
  4. Mountain soil

Solution: c. Alluvial soil


3.
 What is sustainable development?

Solution: Sustainable development refers to the process of economic development where resources are used judiciously to satisfy needs of not only present generation but also to conserve them for the use of future generations. Sustainable development takes places without depleting the present natural resources.

4. What is gully erosion?

Solution: The running water cuts through the clayey soil and makes deep channels in it. This is known as gully erosion. As a result of gully erosion, the land becomes unfit for cultivation.

5. Resource planning is a complex process. Explain.

Solution: Yes, I agree that resource planning is a complex process. It is because it involves:

• Identifying resources across the country. This is done by mapping, surveying, qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
• To frame a planning structure with the estimates of the level of technology, skill sets and institutions which are required for harnessing these resources.
• To map the resource development plans with the overall national development plans.


6. What is soil erosion? Discuss two ways of conserving soil in hilly regions.

Solution: The washing away of the top soil is known as soil erosion. Soil erosion is caused due to the actions of wind, water and glacier.

Soil can be conserved in hilly regions by following the below methods:
Contour Ploughing: When one ploughs land along the contour lines, it is called contour ploughing. It decreases the flow of water down the slopes and thus helps in soil conservation.
• Terrace Farming: In this type of farming, steps are cut out on the slopes of the hills making terraces. Terrace farming reduces soil erosion.


7. Classify resources on the basis of development with the help of examples.

Solution: On the basis of development, resources can be classified into potential, developed, stock and reserves.

• Potential resources: These resources are available in the region but are not fully used such as wind energy and solar energy.

• Developed resources: These resources are surveyed and their quantity and quality are known. The development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility. Examples: Coal mines, oil wells

• Stock: These resources can satisfy human needs but humans do not have the required technology to access and harness them are known as stock. Examples: hydrogen fuel.

• Reserves: Reserves are those resources whose use has not been fully started and they are used only up to a limited extent. Example: use of river water for generating electricity.


8. Differentiate between the khadar and the bangar soil.

Solution: Differences between the khadar and the bangar soil are:

Khadar soil Bangar soil
It is an old alluvial soil It is a new alluvial soil
It has higher concentration of kankar nodules. It has less concentration of kankar nodules
It is comparatively less fertile. It is more fertile.


9. What has led to land degradation? How is it caused?

Solution: Land degradation refers to deterioration in the quality of land, its top soil, vegetation or water resources. Factors that have led to land degradation are:

• Deforestation: It has reduced the quality of land.
• Mining: Mining sites are abandoned after excavation. This has also deteriorated the quality of land. States like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa have experienced land degradation due to mining.
• Overgrazing has resulted in land degradation in the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
• Over irrigation has reduced the quality of land in Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh. Over irrigation causes water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
• Mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere which retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.
• Disposal of domestic and industrial wastes have further deteriorated the quality of land.


10. Classify resources on the basis of ownership with the help of examples.

Solution: On the basis of ownership, resources can be classified into individual, community owned, national and international resources.

Individual resources: Individual resources are owned privately by a person such as farmlands and houses. 

Community owned resources: Community resources are owned by a community and are accessible to the members of that community such as grazing lands and burial grounds. 

National resources: They belong to a nation. Examples: Water resources, forests and minerals 

International resources: These are resources which are not owned by any single country. The oceanic resources beyond 200 km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean. These are regulated by international laws and regulations. Example: Oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone.


Chapter 2- Agriculture

1. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option:
Assertion (A): In intensive subsistence farming, there is enormous pressure on agricultural land.
Reason (R): High doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production
Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
  3. A is correct but R is wrong.
  4. A is wrong but R is correct

Solution: b. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.


2.
 Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra. Give reason.

Solution: Bajra grows well on sandy soil and shallow black soil. The crop does not require a lot of water. Since Rajasthan is a dry state with sandy soil, it is the largest producer of bajra.

3.
 Pulses are mostly grown in rotation with other crops. Give reason.

Solution: Pulses are leguminous crops. It means that they help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air. Thus, these are mostly grown in rotation with other crops.

4.
 Which crop is known as ‘the golden fibre’? State one climatic condition required for its growth.

Solution: Jute is known as ‘the golden fibre’. Jute crop requires high temperature at the time of growth.

5.
 Differentiate between intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming.

Solution:


6.
 Discuss three main features of plantation.

Solution: Three main features of plantation are:

• Plantation is also a type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown on a large area.
• Plantation agriculture is practiced on a large scale in big farms commonly known as estates which are spread over hundreds of hectares.
• Plantation requires large labour force and huge capital investments and latest scientific techniques. Plantation crop is generally exported.


7.
 What climatic conditions are required for the growth of cotton? Name major cotton producing states in India.

Solution: Climatic conditions required for the growth of cotton plant are:

• It requires high temperature and light rainfall.
• The cotton plant requires 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
Major Cotton producing states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.


8.
 What climatic conditions are required for the growth of tea plantation? Name any two major tea producing states.

Solution: Tropical and sub-tropical conditions are ideal for the growth of tea plants. Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year. It also requires frequent showers spread throughout the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.
Two major tea producing states are Assam and West Bengal.


9.
 Explain any five institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of the farmers.
Solution: In order to improve the condition of farmers and farming, some reforms were introduced by the government of India. These are:

• During 1949-51, many states abolished the zamindari system because of the growing oppression of the zamindars. Uttar Pradesh was the first state to abolish this system.
• All the states in India enacted legislation for the abolition of intermediaries in agriculture. This was done to bring the farmers into direct contact with the government of India.
• Most of the states passed the ceiling on Land Holding Act, 1959. The objective of this act was to ensure that no farmer could possess more than a stipulated maximum size of a land. This act aimed at promoting economic growth with social justice.
• The government of India had established many banks such as the Gramin Bank of India and various cooperative societies to provide loans to the farmers at low rates of interests. This was done to ensure that the farmers do not suffer because of the high interest rates charged by the moneylenders and traders.
• The introduction of the Kissan Credit Card scheme (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS), provision for the insurance of crops against floods, cyclones and fire has improved the conditions of farmers. Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for the benefit of farmers are aired on television and radio.


Chapter 3: Minerals and Energy Resources

1. On an outline map of India, mark the following:

  1. Bailadila iron ore mines
  2. Raniganj coal mines
  3. Bokaro coal mines
  4. Mumbai High oil field
  5. Digboi oil field
  6. Neyveli coal fields

Solution: 



Chapter 4: Manufacturing industries [2M]

1. What are agglomeration economies?

Solution:  Industrialisation results in urbanisation. Cities not only provide markets to industrial goods but also various services to industries such as marketing, finance etc. Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.

2.
 Classify industries on the basis of weight of raw materials and finished goods.

Solution: On the basis of weight of raw materials and finished goods, industries can be classified into heavy industries and light industries. The raw materials and finished goods of heavy industries are bulky. Example: Iron and steel industry.

The light industry uses light weight raw materials and its finished products are lighter. Example- cotton textile and consumer electronic industries.


3.
 Why are agro based industries important? Give any three reasons.

Solution: Agro-based industries are important because of the following reasons:

• The agro-based industries have given a major boost to the agricultural sector in India. Because the industry sources most of its raw material from the Indian agricultural sector, the farmers strive to produce more, in order to take advantage of this opportunity.
• The development and competitiveness of these industries have not only helped to increase production but also has raised the level of efficiency in the production processes.
• The farmers are increasingly investing in commercial farming, in order to produce high-value crops for such industries. This, in turn, have improved the financial status of the peasant class.


4.
 Why is India not able to perform to her full potential in iron and steel production? Explain any three reasons.

Solution: India is not able to perform to her full potential in iron and steel production because:

• High costs and limited availability of coking coal
• Lower productivity of labour
• Irregular supply of energy and poor infrastructure


5.
 Why has the ‘Chhotanagpur Plateau Region’ the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? Analyse the reasons.

Solution: Chhotanagpur Plateau region has the highest concentration of iron and steel industries due to the following reasons:

• This region has vast reserves of coal and iron ore. Also, iron ore is cheaply available in the region, thus providing the raw material for iron and steel industries.
• Cheap labour is available to the industries from the states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and Chhattisgarh.
• The region has immense potential for growth in the local markets like Kolkata, Patna, Ranchi etc.


6.
 Why was cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat in the early years? Explain any three reasons.

Solution: In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat due to the following reasons:

• Maharashtra and Gujarat were the major producers of cotton.The moist climate of both the states suited the temperature that is required for the cotton industries (the cotton threads tend to break in dry climate while they rarely break in moist and humid climate).
• Gujarat and Maharashtra had ports which helped in the transportation of the finished goods to various locations.


7.
 Textile industries occupies unique position in the Indian economy’. Justify by giving three arguments.

Solution: Textile mills occupy a unique position in the Indian economy because:

• It contributes significantly to industrial production. Its contribution is 14% to our economy.
• It employs around 35 million people. In terms of providing employment, it is the second largest employment generation sector after agriculture.
• It contributes around 4% towards the GDP. It is the only industry in the country which is self – reliant, dealing with raw materials to highest value added products.


8.
 Agriculture and industries are complementary to each other. Discuss.

Solution: Agriculture and industries are complementary to each other.

• Agricultural production has increased as a result of using irrigation pumps, insecticides, pesticides and fertilisers manufactured by industries.
• Agriculture provide raw materials to various ago-based industries. For example, jute is used in manufacturing jute products and sugarcane is used in making refined sugar.
• Development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has led to an increase in agricultural production.


9.
 Explain the pro-active approach adopted by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) for preserving the natural environment and resources.

Solution: National Thermal Power Corporation is a major power providing corporation in India. The corporation has taken many steps to preserve the natural environment and resources in India such as:

• NTPC has been using the latest techniques and has upgraded its existing equipment. This has helped in reducing wastage of many resources.
• It has been able to minimise the generation of waste materials by maximising the utilisation of ash.
• It has been making efforts to reduce environmental pollution by liquid waste management and ash water recycling systems.
• NTPC also supervises and reviews ecological parameters of the surrounding areas where its power stations are located.
• It has laid down green belts to maintain ecological balance in the regions surrounding its power stations.


10.
 The jute industry is mainly concentrated in West Bengal. Give three reasons. State two challenges faced by this industry.
Solution: The jute industry is mainly concentrated in West Bengal due to the following reasons:

• The soil of the Ganga Brahmaputra delta in West Bengal is suitable for the growth of jute and hence many jute industries are located here. West Bengal has a humid climate and rainfall up to 200 cm which is essential for the jute crop.
• Due to the presence of the Hooghly River, Kolkata has enough fresh water for retting the fiber, cleaning and the dyeing processes.
• Cheap hydel power from the Damodar Valley electric grid and easy availability of coal from Raniganj coal field have led to the concentration of jute mills in the state.
Two challenges faced by jute industry are:
• Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes
• Competition from other countries like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.


11. On an outline map of India, mark the following:

  1. A cotton textile industry located in south India
  2. A cotton textile industry located in north India
  3. Salem steel plant
  4. Bokaro steel plant
  5. Jamshedpur steel plant
  6. Noida software technology park
  7. Thiruvananthapuram software technology park

Solution:




Chapter 5: Lifelines of National Economy

1. Complete the following table with correct information with regard to the ports.

Ports

Kandla

Mumbai

Chennai

It is a tidal port

(A)-?

 

(B)-?

 

Solution: (A)- Natural and well-sheltered harbour port

(B)- Artificial port


2.
 Which is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country?

Solution: Marmagao port (Goa) is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country.

3.
 Why has the importance of inland waterways declined? Give any two reasons.

Solution: The importance of inland waterways declined in the wake of rapid development of road and rail transport. Deforestation of hill slopes has led to erosion and silting of rivers which has made navigation difficult and has also affected the inland waterways.

4.
 What is the Golden Quadrilateral? Mention any two ways in which it will help in the economic development of the country.

Solution: The Golden Quadrilateral is the largest express highway in India which is been managed by the National Highway Authority of India. It connects four major metropolitan cities in India, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. In the process, it also connects many other cities such as Ahmadabad, Surat, Pune, and Bengaluru. It helps in the economic development of the country in the following ways:

• As this project connects many cities in India, it will enable industrial growth of even small towns, through which it passes.
• It provides great opportunities for transportation of various goods from major cities to ports, and thus helping in trading activities.


5.
 Discuss merits and demerits of the air transport.

Solution: Merits of air transport

• It is the fastest means of transport.
• Air transport provides comfortable, efficient and quick transport service. It is regarded as best mode of transport for transporting perishable goods.
• Air transport is regarded as the only means of transport in those areas which are not easily accessible to other modes of transport. North eastern parts of India can be easily accessed through air transport.
• It plays an important role in rescuing people in cases of natural calamity in regions which are not easily accessible by roads and railways.
Demerits of air transport
• Air transport is the costliest mode of transport. Not everyone can afford it.
• Most of the air transport are uncertain and the unreliable because these are controlled by weather condition. It is seriously affected by adverse weather conditions. Fog, snow and heavy rain weather may cause cancellation of flights.
• In India not every city is connected by air transport.


6.
 Mention any three problems faced by the Indian railways.

Solution: Three problems faced by the Indian railways:

• Many passengers travel without tickets causing loss in revenues.
• People also damage or steal railway property.
• Unnecessary pulling of chains has also been a major problem.


7.
 ‘In India, roadways have preceded railways’. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Solution: Yes, I agree that in India, roadways have preceded railways’. This is because of the following reasons:

• Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
• Roads can be built in more dissected and undulating topography while it is not easy to lay railway lines in dissected regions.
• Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes such as the Himalayas. For example, towns and villages in Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are well connected to each other by roads. There are only few railway lines in these states.
• Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances,
• It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
• Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.


8.
 Tourism in India has grown substantially over last three decades. Explain.

Solution: Tourism in India has grown substantially over last three decades:

• The arrival of foreign tourists in the country has witnessed an increase of 4.5 per cent during the year 2015 as against the year 2014, contributing `1, 35,193 crore of foreign exchange in the year 2015.
• 8.03 million foreign tourists visited India in 2015. More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
• Tourism also promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.
• It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
• Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco-tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.


9.
 Advancement of the international trade of a country is an index of its economic prosperity’. Justify the statement with five arguments.

Solution: Advancement of a country’s international trade is an index of its economic prosperity because

• International trade is in fact an ‘economic barometer’ of a country. A healthy volume of it ensures a trickling down of prosperity into the macro-economy as well.
• No country is self-sufficient in all resources or services. It has to resort to international trade in order to satisfy one or the other need of its economy.
• If the balance of international trade is favourable to a country, it can earn more foreign exchange and hence strengthen its financial position in the market.
• International trade induces a country to develop secondary and tertiary sectors for exporting goods which can fetch more foreign exchange.
• A country’s economic prosperity can be gauged by the health of its international trade.


10.
 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follows:
The distribution pattern of the Railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors. The northern plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the most favourable condition for their growth. However, a large number of rivers requiring construction of bridges across their wide beds posed some obstacles. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels. The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities. Likewise, it was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand. The contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes (Ghats). The Konkan railway has also faced a number of problems such as sinking of track in some stretches and landslides. Today, the railways have become more important in our national economy than all other means of transport put together. However, rail transport suffers from certain problems as well. Many passengers travel without tickets. Thefts and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely. People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway. Think over it, how we can help our railway in running as per the scheduled time?


10.1
 Which of the following landscapes will be most suitable to lay railway lines?

  1. Sandy plains
  2. Alluvial plains of north India
  3. Mountainous regions
  4. Plateau regions

Solution: b. Alluvial plains of north India


10.2 In which year the first train ran in India?

  1. 1852
  2. 1853
  3. 1854
  4. 1855

Solution: b. 1853


10.3
 In the recent times, the development of which railway along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods?

  1. Konkan railways
  2. Railways in the Himalayan region
  3. Northern railways
  4. Central railways

Solution: a. Konkan railways


10.4
 Which factors have largely affected the distribution of the railways in the country?

  1. Social factors
  2. Political factors
  3. Physiographic factors
  4. Climatic factors

Solution: c. Physiographic factors


11.
 On an outline map of India, mark the following:

  1. National Highway no.1
  2. Paradip sea port
  3. Marmagao port
  4. Tuticorin port
  5. Kandla sea port
  6. Meena Bakkam airport
  7. Rajiv Gandhi airport

Solution:



Economics

Chapter 1- Development

1. What does HDI stand for? What are the indicators of HDI?
Solution: HDI stands for Human Development Index. The indicators of HDI are

• Life expectancy
• Education
• Per capita income


2.
 What is sustainable development?

Solution: Sustainable development is development which meets the needs of the present and keeps in mind the needs of future generations.

3.
 In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option:
Assertion (A): Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use.
Reason (R): Money cannot buy certain things like happiness, pollution free environment etc.
Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
  3. A is correct but R is wrong.
  4. A is wrong but R is correct

Solution: a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.


4.
 State any two goals of development other than income.

Solution: Two goals of development other than income are equal treatment and freedom in society.

5.
 Different people can have different development goals’. Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer.         

Solution: Higher income can be considered a development goal, but for most people, equal treatment, freedom, better standard of living, respect, security, friendship etc. are the other goals which people might desire.

Higher income indicates more money to purchase material things, but non-material things are also important to have a better quality of life. In this way, there are other goals or factors which cannot be measured but are important in people’s lives. Therefore, we can say higher income is one but not the only development goal for most people.


6.
 Can we consider that ‘higher income’ is the only development goal for most people? Give reasons to support your answer.

Solution: Yes, I agree that different people can have different development goals’. This is because :

• In a country where people are socially, economically and culturally different, their needs and aspirations for development or progress will also be different.
• There are people seeking equal treatment, freedom, security and respect for each other more than they seek income. Hence, every individual has their own priority to have material things or non-material things.
• For example, for a labourer, development may be in the form of better wages or regular work being provided to him. However, for a farmer, development goals may include possession of more land, better return for its produce, and the use of better equipment and fertilisers to increase output.
In this way, we see that development goals are different for different people; however, everyone aims to have progress and a better standard of living.


Chapter 2- Sectors of Indian Economy

1. Which of the following activities are included in the tertiary sector?

  1. Fishing
  2. Agriculture
  3. Banking
  4. Processing

Solution: c. Banking


2.
 State one distinction between the public sector and the private sector. Give an example for each.

Solution: In the public sector, the government owns most assets and provides all the services. Railways is an example of the public sector.

In the private sector, ownership of assets and delivery of services is in the hands of private individuals or companies. Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) is an example of the private sector.


3.
 The importance of the tertiary sector has emerged in the recent years. Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer.
Solution: Yes, I agree that the importance of the tertiary sector has emerged in the recent years. It is because

• The tertiary sector caters to the needs of the people by providing services such as healthcare, education, defence, transport and banking. These can be considered basic services.
• The sector enables smooth functioning of the other two sectors by providing services such as trade, storage and transport. In turn, the development of the primary and secondary sectors would lead to the demand for such services.
• As the income of people increases, certain sections of the population start demanding more services related to shopping, dining, tourism etc.
• In the recent years, services related to information and technology have become popular and essential.


4.
 In India, large-scale underemployment exists in the agricultural sector. Discuss ways in which employment can be created to solve the problem of underemployment.

Solution: Some of the ways which could help solve the problem of underemployment:

• The government can make expenditures to assist farmers to meet their development needs. In the village, if a farmer owns land which requires a well for irrigation, then the government can help the farmer in constructing the well. This will not only lead to increased agricultural produce but also employment generation for the underemployed.
• Apart from the well, the farmer will require other inputs such as soil, fertilisers and grains for which he might require money and will have to approach the moneylenders for which the farmer will have to pay high interest rates. To overcome this problem, the government or banks can provide credit to farmers at a lower rate of interest. This would encourage them to undertake more farm activities resulting in both increased produce and employment as he would require more people to carry out tasks.
• If the government invests money in infrastructural development such as better roads, then transport facilities such as trucks and storage facilities would result in vast employment generation in the agricultural sector and in trade and transport.
• Promoting local industries in semi-rural areas can give employment opportunities to the locals both men and women.
• Increase in educational institutions, skill development and better health facilities can result in a more educated, skilled workforce which will give them wider job opportunities and thus reduce the problem of underemployment.


5.
 Differentiate between the organised and unorganized sectors in India.
Solution:



Chapter 3- Money and Credit

1. Why do banks keep a small portion of deposits as cash with themselves?

  1. To extend loans to the poor
  2. To pay salaries to the staff
  3. To pay depositors who might come to withdraw money
  4. To extend loan facility

Solution: c. To pay depositors who might come to withdraw money


2.
 What is a collateral? Why is it demanded by the banks against loan agreements?

Solution: Collateral is an asset which the borrower owns (such as land, building, vehicle, livestock, bank deposit) and uses this as a guarantee to the lender until the loan is repaid. Lenders demand collateral because if a borrower fails to repay the loan, then they have the right to sell the asset or collateral to obtain the payment of the loan.

3.
 How is money used as a medium of exchange? Explain with examples.

Solution: Money was introduced to overcome the problems associated with the barter system where there was no standard medium of exchange.

Money acts as an intermediate in the exchange process. Anyone can exchange his goods for money and then buy those goods which are required by him.
For example, a vegetable seller wants to sell his vegetables to buy fruits. In the absence of money, he would have to find someone who wants to sell fruits in exchange for his vegetables. However, this is not always possible. In this case, money acts as a medium of exchange. The vegetable seller must find a buyer for his vegetables and use the money he receives in exchange to purchase fruits from the market.


4.
 Why do the poor depend on informal sources of credit as compared to formal sources?

Solution: Despite very high interest rates charged by informal lenders such as moneylenders, people in rural India still depend on them to meet their credit requirements as compared to formal sources. It is because of the following reasons:

• Since there are few banks in rural areas, availing loans from banks is very difficult. Banks also require proper documentation and collateral, and a thorough check is done of the borrower.
• The absence of collateral is one of the major reasons why the poor do not get loans from banks.
• On the other hand, availing loans from informal sources are much easier as the lenders know them personally, and hence, they get loans without collateral. They can if necessary also approach moneylenders for a loan without repaying the earlier loans.
Thus, the lack of formal sources in rural areas and the various formalities associated with getting a loan from banks make the poor depend on informal sources to meet their credit needs.


5.
 Distinguish between formal sector and informal sector credit activities.
Solution:



6.
 Cheap and affordable credit must be available to all. Elaborate.

Solution: Compared to formal lenders, most informal lenders charge very high interest rates on loans, thus the cost to the borrower of informal loans is very high.

• Higher cost of borrowing means that most of the earnings are spent on repaying the loan, and hence, borrowers have less income for themselves.
• Higher interest rate can also imply that the amount to be repaid is greater than the income of the borrower and this could result in debt.
• Higher interest rate might discourage people who want to start an enterprise or carry out some business.
• Therefore, in order to overcome the problems associated with the high cost of borrowing, cheap and affordable credit must be available.
• Lower borrowing cost will encourage many people to start their business, set up small-scale industries, farmers could borrow to buy his inputs, set up new industries and this in turn would lead to the development of the country.


7.
 How do self-help groups bridge the gap between formal and informal sources of credit for the poor?

Solution: A group of people who come together to provide the poor a medium to avail loans is a self-help group.

• They are a group of 15–20 members, particularly women, who pool in their savings which vary from ₹25 to ₹100 depending on the ability of members.
• Interest rates charged on these loans are lesser than what is charged by moneylenders.
• Small loans are provided to members for buying fertilisers, seeds, cloth, cattle, sewing machines etc. This helps to create self-employment opportunities for members.
• The group makes all the decisions associated with the loan such as the interest rate, repayment schedule and purpose for borrowing, and the group is responsible for the repayment of the loan in case the borrower fails to repay it.
• SHGs help poor borrowers to overcome the problem of lack of collateral which is a requirement in availing loans from the formal sector. Borrowers also get timely loans where the cost of borrowing or the interest rate is much lower than informal moneylenders. In this way, SHGs play an important role in bridging the gap between formal and informal sources of credit.


8.
 Reserve Bank of India (RBI) supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans. Explain.

Solution: RBI is the central bank of India. Formal sector loans are provided by banks and cooperatives. RBI supervises the functioning of the formal sources of loans in the following ways:

• According to the guidelines of RBI, banks have to maintain a minimum cash balance out of the deposits they receive, and this is monitored by RBI.
• RBI ensures that banks cater not only to loan requirements to profit-making business and traders but also to farmers and small-scale industries and small borrowers.
• Banks have to periodically submit information regarding their lending, interest rate etc.


Chapter 4- Globalisation and the Indian Economy

1. Study the following picture and answer the question:

 

  What is the above picture trying to depict?

  1. Globalisation does not benefit children.
  2. Globalisation has created new opportunities for companies providing services, particularly those involving IT.
  3. Inability of the government to help the poor people.
  4. Globalisation has benefitted the developed countries and has been unfair to the developing and underdeveloped nations.

Solution: d. Globalisation has benefitted the developed countries and has been unfair to the developing and underdeveloped nations.


2. Which of the following is the benefits of foreign trade for buyers?

  1. Increase in the choice of goods
  2. Access to domestically produced goods
  3. Export of domestically produced goods
  4. Expansion of domestic markets

Solution: a. Increase in the choice of goods


3.
 What is an MNC?

Solution: An MNC is a company which owns or controls production in more than one nation. MNCs set up offices and factories for production in regions where they can get cheap labour and other resources.

4.
 What is globalisation?

Solution: Globalisation is the integration between countries which enables the movement of goods and services, investments and technology resulting in greater foreign trade and foreign investment by integration of production and markets across borders.

5.
 What is a trade barrier? Why is it imposed by governments?

Solution: A trade barrier is a restriction imposed by the government on foreign trade. Trade barriers can be in the form of tariffs, quotas etc.

Governments use trade barriers to regulate foreign trade and to decide what kind of goods and the quantity which can enter the country.


6.
 What are the factors/conditions which encourage multinational companies (MNCs) to set up their production units in other countries?

Solution: MNCs generally set up production units which are closer to markets and have the availability of skilled and unskilled labour at low costs. They also prefer to set up their businesses in those places where the necessary factors of production are easily available. MNCs also prefer to set up factories at places where government policies benefit them. 

7.
 How do MNCs keep their cost of production low and earn greater profits? Explain using examples.

Solution: Multinational companies or MNCs set up offices and factories for production in regions where they can get cheap labour and other resources. This enables them to keep their cost of production low.

• For example, an MNC producing electronic items on a large scale designs their product in research centres in the United States. However, since cheap labour is available in China, it manufactures the components in China.
• These manufactured parts are then shipped to east European countries where they are assembled. From here, the electronic item is sold all over the world. The company’s customer care services are carried out through call centres in India.
• We see that the finished goods and services are not only sold globally but also produced globally.
Thus, the spreading of the production process across borders enables MNCs to keep their costs low and profits high.


8.
 How are local companies benefitted by collaborating with multinational corporations? Explain with examples.
Solution: When local companies launch a joint venture with MNCs

• The MNCs provide the finances for additional investments for faster production.
• MNCs bring with them the latest technology for enhancing and improving production.
• Some Indian companies have had very successful foreign collaborations. Globalisation has enabled some Indian companies to expand into multinational corporations.
• For example, Parakh Foods was a small company which has been bought over by a big American company –Cargill foods.
• Parakh Foods had built a large marketing network in various parts of India as a well-reputed brand. It had four oil refineries whose control has now shifted to Cargill. Now, Cargill is the largest manufacturer of edible oil in India making five million pouches daily.


9. What are the factors which has facilitated globalisation?

Solution: Rapid improvement in transport and communication technology and liberalisation of trade and foreign investment policy are some of the major factors which have enabled globalisation.

• Improvement in transport technology has enabled faster delivery of goods across distances at lower costs.
• Telecommunication facilities such as mobile phones and fax machines have enabled people to connect with each other around the world and to communicate with the remotest areas which is done through satellite communication devices.
• Computers and the use of the Internet have enabled people to share and obtain information on nearly everything.
• With liberalisation of trade, there is more freedom in decisions relating to exports and imports as government restrictions are more liberal.
• MNCs have played an important role in the globalisation process bringing with them investment, technology and more goods and services.


10.
 Analyse the positive impacts of globalisation in India.
Solution: The positive impact of globalisation in India can be summarised as follows:

• Top Indian companies have benefited from increased competition. They have invested in better technology and production methods which has raised their production standards as well as the quality of goods and services.
• Globalisation has enabled many Indian companies to open offices and factories in other countries, thus making them MNCs. Examples are Tata Motors and Ranbaxy.
• Globalisation has also created new opportunities for companies providing IT services.
• Increased investment in the Indian market in the fields of automobiles and fast foods have benefited consumers by offering them a wider choice of goods and services.
• Globalisation has led to creation of new job opportunities.
• Local companies supplying raw materials to large companies have benefited from globalisation.


11. Why did the Indian Government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investments after independence? Why were these restrictions removed in 1991? Analyse the reasons.

Solution: The Indian government had put barriers on foreign trade and investments after Independence.

• It was done to protect the interests of the producers and small industrialists in the country from foreign competition. It was feared that the producers will not be able to survive the wealthy foreign companies immediately after Independence.
• In 1991, the government felt that the time has come to allow foreign companies to invest in Indian markets.
• This would also force Indian producers to improve the quality of their goods and services. Hence, the government removed the barriers on foreign trade to a large extent.


12.
 "Globalisation has been advantageous to consumers as well as to producers." Support the statement with suitable examples.
Solution: The advantages of globalisation to the producers:

• The producers now have an access to various markets in the world. This has increased their profits.
• The producers can now easily avail credit facilities forwarded in terms of capital and technology.
• Globalisation has given opportunities to the local companies to themselves become MNCs. Example, Tata Motors.
Advantages to the consumers:
• Globalisation has created a greater choice of goods for the consumers.
• Due to stiff competition, the quality of goods have improved and the prices have reduced.
• Globalisation has created new jobs in the market.


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