CBSE Class 10 Chemistry Carbon and Its Compounds
Covalent Bonding of Non-Metals
The bond formed by mutual sharing of a pair of electrons is single covalent bond, by sharing of two pairs of electrons is double covalent bond and three pairs of electrons is called triple covalent bond.
Covalent compounds are insoluble in water and poor conductors of electricity. They have low melting and boiling point as compared to ionic compounds.
Introduction to Hydrocarbons
Tetravalency and catenation have rendered carbon, a unique element.
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only and can be classified into saturated and unsaturated compounds.
Hydrocarbons having same molecular formula but different structure are called isomers.
Properties of Hydrocarbons
Homologous series is a family of compounds which have same functional group having similar chemical properties and gradation in physical properties.
Hydrocarbons undergo combustion to release large amount of heat and light.
Saturated hydrocarbons undergo substitution reaction whereas unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions.
Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids
Carboxylic acids are group of organic compounds containing carboxyl group (-COOH) attached to carbon atom.
Esters are sweet smelling organic compounds obtained from reaction of alcohols and carboxylic acids.
Conversion of esters into alcohols and acids is called saponification.
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