What are the characterstics of the fundamental particles ?

Asked by chauhanayush706 | 25th May, 2017, 12:11: PM

Expert Answer:

Properties of Electrons

  • An electron, which is denoted as e-, is the fundamental particle with a negative charge.
  • Its properties are independent of the gas in the discharge tube.
  • The mass of an electron is negligible and its charge is -1.
  • The mass of an electron is extremely small. It is of the mass of a hydrogen atom (9.108 ´ 10-28 g) and so its mass is considered almost negligible. (Hydrogen is an atom of the lowest mass). Since the mass of a hydrogen atom is 1 u, we can say that the relative mass of an electron is u.
  • The absolute mass of an electron is 9 ×10-28 grams.
  • Its charge is 1 unit negative charge, i.e. 1.602 ´ 10-19 coulombs.
  • The tiny electrons revolve around the nucleus of the atom in specific orbits or shells.

 

 

Properties of Protons

  • Proton is denoted as p+, and is the fundamental particle with a positive charge.
  • The mass of a proton is taken as 1 unit and its charge as +1.
  • The mass of a proton was calculated as being equal to the mass of an atom of hydrogen, i.e. 1.672 ´ 10-24 g. The relative mass of a proton is 1 u.
  • If we compare the mass of a proton with that of an electron, then the mass of a proton is 1840 times that of an electron.
  • The absolute mass of a proton is 1.6 ´ 10-24 grams.
  • The charge of a proton is equal and opposite to the charge of an electron, i.e. 1.602 × 10-19 coulomb of positive charge.

 The formation of cathode rays and anode rays on passing an electric current through the gases at a very low pressure shows that an atom is divisible. It is made up of smaller particles.

 

Properties of Neutrons

  • Neutron is denoted as n, and is the fundamental particle with no charge.
  • The mass of the neutron is slightly more than that of proton. i.e. 1.676 × 10-24 g, compared to 1.672 × 10-24 g. The relative mass of a neutron is 1 u.
  • The absolute mass of a neutron is 1.6 × 10-24 grams.
  • Neutron is electrically neutral. It has no charge.
  • Neurons of the atoms lead to the formation of isotopes.

Answered by Vaibhav Chavan | 25th May, 2017, 02:48: PM

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