Peter the Great

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Birth

Peter was born in1672 to Czar Alexis and Natalia Kirilovna Narishkin. He spent most of his childhood in a suburb of Moscow. Peter had a bear like constitution, was of gigantic stature, and possessed Herculean physical prowess. Image Courtesy: schools-wikipedia.org

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Birth
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Qualities of Greatness

His talent for leadership soon became apparent when he organized military games that became regular maneuvers in siege craft. He was willing to undergo all the physical exertions and privations that he exacted from his subjects. Of his 2 marriages he had a son and two daughters. Image Courtesy: www.nlm.nih.gov

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Qualities of Greatness
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Return to Russia

In the 16th and early 17th century Russia was continuously at war. He undertook many voyages to learn about western culture and about science and technology. In 1698, Peter had to return to Russia at the news of a military revolt allegedly instigated by Sophia Alekseyevna. Image Courtesy: 3.bp.blogspot.com

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Return to Russia
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Attack on the Symbol of Moscow

He began to modernize the armed forces, and launched domestic reforms. He personally cut off the beards of his nobles and shortly after ordered them to dress in Western attire. This attack on the symbols of old Muscovy mark the beginning of Peter’s attempt to force Russia to adopt European appearance and other features of western cultures. Image Courtesy: fc09.deviantart.net

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Attack on the Symbol of Moscow
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Strategic Alliance

Peter, in alliance with Denmark and Poland, began the Northern War (1700-1721) against Charles XII of Sweden. Peter’s 1st missions to China were unsuccessful but his efforts led to the Treaty of Kyakhta(1727), which fixed the Russo-Chinese border and established commercial relations. Image Courtesy: homepage.mac.com

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Strategic Alliance
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Growth of Army

Peter enlarged and modernized the army, founded and expanded the navy, and established technical schools to train men for military service. To finance this huge military establishment, he created state monopolies, introduced the first poll tax, and placed levies on every conceivable item. Peter encouraged and subsidized private industry. He introduced a new system of central administration and tried to reform provincial and local government. Image Courtesy: www.ageofbattles.ru

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Growth of Army
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Increased Roles of the Nobles

He enlarged the roles of nobles who owed service to the state, and posed further duties on it, and forced the sons of nobles to attend technical schools. He introduced the Table of Ranks, which established a bureaucratic hierarchy in which promotion was based on merit rather than on birth. Image Courtesy: russia-ic.com

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Increased Roles of the Nobles
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Empowerment of women

Women were released from their servile position. He made women eat meals together with men and go to parties. Women were forced to wear European clothes and were no longer needed to hid their bodies under a lot of clothing or paint their teeth black. And for the first time, women could choose their own husbands. Image Courtesy: eng.1september.ru

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Empowerment of women
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Academy of Scientist

Peter was responsible for the foundation of the Academy of Sciences in 1725. He reformed the calendar and simplified the alphabet. Image Courtesy: ruvr.ru

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Academy of Scientist
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Emperor of Russia

In 1721 Peter had himself proclaimed “Emperor of all Russia.” His reign was decisive in the long process of transforming medieval Moscow into modern Russia. The city of Saint Petersburg was founded by him on 27 May 1703, the most Westernised city of Russia. Peter died in 1725 from cold when he rescued drowning sailors in icy waters. Image Courtesy: www.visualphotos.com

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Emperor of Russia
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