How do you calculate Thomas coefficient and Seebeck coefficient?
If the temperature difference ÎT between the two ends of a material is small, then the thermopower of a material is conventionally (though only approximately, see below) defined as:
where ÎV is the thermoelectric voltage seen at the terminals. (See below for more on the signs of ÎV and ÎT.)
This can also be written in relation to the electric field E and the temperature gradient , by the equation: