Class 9 NCERT Solutions Geography Chapter 6 - Population
Population Exercise 54
(i) Decline in the birth rates has led to the gradual decline in the rate of population growth since 1981.
(ii) Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time.The major components of population growth are increase of population and immigration. Natural increase of a population is the difference between the birth rates and the death rates in the country during a given period of time. Immigration of people from one region tot he other also affect the growth of population.
(iii) The age structure/age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. It is one of the most basic characteristics of a population.
Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
(iv) Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It can be movement of people within different regions of the same country or between countries. It is a determinant factor of population change as it changes the size and composition of the population of both the areas of departure and arrival.
Development of a nation depends on the kind of activities its population is engaged into. Basically, there are three main kinds of occupations- primary, secondary and tertiary.
Primary occupation includes activities such as agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry etc. Secondary occupation includes processing of minerals, manufacturing industries, construction etc. Tertiary activities include the provision of various services like banking, transport, commerce etc.
We find that in under developed and developing nations, people are mostly engaged in primary activities as their main occupations are agriculture and fishing. In developed nations, people are engaged in secondary activities as they work mostly in industries.
Health is an important component of population composition that affects the process of development. A healthy population is an asset to the country. A healthy individual is much more efficient and productive than an unhealthy individual. He or she is able to realise his or her potential, and play an important role in social and national development. People are the nation’s most valuable resource and a well educated and healthy population provides potential power.
The National Population Policy was formulated in the year 2000. Its significant features are:
- It formulates policies for imparting free and compulsory education to children up to 14 years of age.
- It makes policies to reduce the infant mortality rates.
- It undertakes programmes to achieve the universal immunization of children in India.
- It promotes delayed marriage for girls.
- NPP stressed on the improvement of lives of the adolescents by protecting them from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.
- It also aims to provide adolescents with proper food supplements.