NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 - People as Resource
Chapter - Exercise
Chapter 2 - People as Resource Exercise 27
Farmers in India use primitive methods of production in agriculture due to poverty. Lack of ownership right present in the existing land tenure system e.g. if we use modern methods of cultivation, a situation can be created when only two persons of a family can complete the work in farm instead of three. But the lack of modern methods and poverty create a situation that three persons work when the same work can be performed by two persons. So, one person is disguisedly employed.
Seasonal unemployment - Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. Agriculture in India is not a whole time occupation. It is seasonal. The cultivators generally grow only one crop in a year. As such in the rural sector and in the lean season, the cultivators and the hired agriculture workers find no work to do. The seasonal character of Agriculture in India leads to seasonal unemployment.
In the case of agriculture, there is no scope for further employment. As a result of disguised unemployment, many members of the farming families are unable to get full time work. As a result, much emphasis will now have to be put on manufacturing activities which belong to the secondary sector. This sector now absorbs only 10% of the working population. There is much scope in this sector so new manufacturing units can be set up and maximum employment opportunities created.
Some people can be absorbed in the tertiary sector as well by expanding the scopes of activities like - transport communication, banking, education, health, tourism and other such services.
(a) Make education at the secondary level more career-oriented, which would endow individuals with not only education but also the requisite skills for gaining successful employment.
(b) Create a sort of screening process whereby each individual chooses subjects that suit his or her abilities.
(c) The introduction of newer subjects and fields of study at the school level should be accompanied by a growth of job opportunities in the sectors that would employ the students electing to study such subjects.
Human capital makes use of the other resources like land, labour and physical capital to produce an output. The other resources cannot become useful on their own. Hence, human capital may well be considered the best among all the resources.
- It helps a man to make all around development and opens the avenue of prosperity.
- It uplifts his abilities as a skilled worker and enables him to earn better.
- Education enables a man to get rid of bad habits.
- It helps a man to acquire good habits and become an ideal citizen for his country.
- Literate parents are aware of the benefits of education of their children. They are also conscious of proper nutrition and hygiene.
The health of an individual helps him to realise his potential and also gives him the ability to fight illness. An unhealthy individual is a liability to his place of work. The health of a person is directly related to his efficiency. As compared to an unhealthy individual, a healthy person can work more efficiently and with greater productivity.
Activities can be classified under the following three sectors on the basis of the nature of their products or materials used:
Primary Sector - Activities concerned with gathering or making available materials provided by nature are included in Primary Sector like agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, poultry farming, fishing, mining etc.
Secondary Sector - Such activities which transform raw materials or primary products into commodities more useful to man are included under Secondary Sector. Some such activities are like manufacturing, quarrying.
Tertiary Sector - This sector includes those activities which are a must for running modern industries or support the activities of the above two sectors. For example banking, transport, trade, education, insurance etc.
Non-economic activities are the ones that do not add to the national income; for example, an individual performing domestic chores.
Education is one of the major determinants of the earning of an individual in the market. As majority of the women have meager education so they are paid less than men.
Along with education, skill is also an important determinant which affects the pay of an individual. Women are generally unskilled so they are employed in low paid work.
It is also a fact that women can not do as much physical work as men can do. So naturally they are paid less than men.
Women have generally an additional responsibility of bringing up their family and children and so they can not be as regular as men in their duties. Hence, they are employed in low paid work and paid less as compared to men.
A situation in which a section of the people, who are able and willing to work, but do not find gainful work is referred to as 'unemployment'. Such a situation is often found in developing countries as compared to developed countries.
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