Class 8 NCERT Solutions History Chapter 11 - The Making of the National Movement
Revise important topics in the chapter with NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 11 The Making of the National Movement. Go through the lessons on the impact of World War-I on India. In pre-independent India, understand the politics of radicals and the politics of moderates to fight against the British rule.
The NCERT textbook solutions for this CBSE Class 8 History chapter cover topics such as the Non-Cooperation Movement, Muslim League resolution of 1940 etc. For thorough revision, check the doubts and solutions related to Class 8 History at our website’s ‘UnDoubt’ section.
The Making of the National Movement Exercise 159
National political consciousness began to emerge in the country as people were dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s due to the following reasons:
- In 1878, the Arms Act was passed by the British government. According to this Act, no Indian could possess weapons without a valid license. However, the Europeans and the Anglo Indians were allowed to keep arms without license. This caused resentment amongst the Indians.
- Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878 in which empowered the government to confiscate the newspapers if they print anything against the British government.
- The Ilbert bill was passed in 1883 by Lord Ripon. This bill sought to create political equality as now the Europeans or the British citizens could be tried by the Indian judges. However, due to vehement protests by the Europeans, the bill was withdrawn. This enraged the Indians and they began to feel the need for organising themselves.
The Indian National Congress had representatives from all the sections of the Indian society. Thus, it wished to speak for all the people of the country.
The First World War hugely impacted the economic situation in India. As a result of the war, the defence expenditures of the Government of India rose. The government increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits to meet the war expenses. Many goods and articles began to supplied to the war zones which led to acute rise in prices of the commodities. This created many difficulties for the common people.
The First World War led to the rise and the expansion of the Indian industries. Since the British industries began to export goods to the war zone in order to meet daily requirements of the troops (jute bags, clothes etc) and materials to improve infrastructure, the Indian industries began to manufacture goods and articles for the Indian markets. It also began to supply goods for the war needs. Thus, Indian industries reaped good profits during the war
The Indian National Congress in its early years was dominated by the moderates. Moderates were a group of political leaders who believed in British sense of justice and fair play. They believed in changing the policies of the government by sending petitions to the British government. They protested within the constitutional limits of the country. Moderate leaders practised what was called by the Radicals as the "politics of petitions"
The moderates published many articles in the newspapers and journals highlighting about the increasing poverty of the country under the British rule. The Congress in its early years during the period of the moderates created awareness about the impoverishment of the peasants, food shortages in the country etc. They demanded reduction in military expenditures and revenues. They also raised the difficulties faced by the tribals due to the passing of the Forest Acts and highlighted the plight of the Indian labourers abroad. Since the moderates felt that the British government respect the ideals of freedom and justice, their just demands would be accepted by the government.
By the end of 1890s, many people began to realise that radical policies needed to be followed in order to forced the government to accept their demands. They came to be known as radicals. While the moderates believed in the “politics of prayers”, the radicals did not hesitate to use extra constitutional methods like the boycott and swedeshi movement. They believed that people have to fight for gaining ‘swaraj’ or the self rule.
Non Cooperation Movement started in 1920.As soon as the movement started, thousands of students left government schools, many lawyers like Motilal Nehru and C.R.Das gave up their membership. People surrendered their titles and boycotted legislatures. Huge bon fires of foreign clothes were organised in many cities.
The movement was also joined by people belonging to various communities and took various shapes. The liquor shops were picketed at various places. In Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh “forest satyagrahs”, were staged by the peasants who grazed their cattle in the forests without paying the grazing fees. In Sind, Muslims supported the Khilafat and the non cooperation movement. At Kheda, in Gujarat, Patidar peasants organised non violent movement against the high revenue demands of the British. In tea gardens of Assam, labourers demanded an increase in their pay.
Gandhi was considered as a ‘messiah’ by the people. It was believed by common masses that Gandhi would help them to overcome their misery and poverty. Every section of people thought that he would help them. The peasants imagined that Gandhi would help them in fighting the tyranny of the zamindars and the landless labourers believed that he would provide lands to them. Ordinary people even credited Gandhi with their own achievements. For example, the peasants of the United Provinces were able to stop illegal eviction of tenants. They credited Gandhi for their achievement. However, sometimes tribals and peasants undertook actions which did not conform to Gandhi ideologies.
Gandhi realised that the British would never grant independence to India. Indians would have to fight for it. The Civil Disobedience Movement began in 1930 with Dandi March. Gandhi marched from Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad to a small village of Dandi in present Navsari district in Gujarat.
He undertook the march to break the salt law as it was felt that it was not justified on the part of the British government to tax the salt as it was an essential part of the food. This march generated patriotic feelings among common masses as salt was used by both rich and the poor.
Developments which led to the creation of Pakistan were:
- The League believed in the “two nation theory” according to which the Hindus and the Muslims were not two different religions but two different nations.
- By 1930s, the League began to view the Hindus and the Muslims not as separate communities but as separate nations.
- When the Congress formed government in seven out of eleven provinces in 1937 elections, League began to feel that the Muslims were a minority in the country and will always have to play a second role in the country or may even not get adequate representation.
- The Congress rejection of the league’s proposals to jointly form the government in the United Provinces in 1937 also annoyed the latter.
- The failure of the Congress to mobilise Muslim masses in India helped the league in widening its social base.
- Elections were held in 1946 to the provinces. League performed extremely well in the seats which were reserved for the Muslims. It thus pressed for the separate state of Pakistan.
- In 1946, three member committee was sent by the British government to India to examine the demand of the League and to suggest suitable political framework for an independent India.
- Cabinet Mission Plan suggested against the partition though it suggested some degree of autonomy for the Muslim majority areas. However, some of its proposals on independence were rejected by both congress and the League.
- After the failure of the Cabinet Mission Plan, the League organised full scale movement to demand the formation of separate state for the Muslims.
- It declared 16 August 1946 as the ‘Direct Action Day’, in which riots broke out in many parts of the country including Calcutta which resulted in the death of thousands of people. By 1947, most of the northern parts to country were engulfed in the violence.
- Partition thus became inevitable. Independence of India was thus marred by partition of the country and innumerable miseries that were inflicted upon the people of both the sides.