Class 8 NCERT Solutions History Chapter 6 - Colonialism and the City
Which was the first structure to successfully use a dome in India? What was peculiar about the construction of Shahjahanabad? Read and understand through TopperLearning’s NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 6 Colonialism and the City. Relearn the concept of de-urbanisation while learning about Indian towns in the late eighteenth century.
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Colonialism and the City Exercise 76
(a) In the Western world, modern cities grew with industrialisation. True
(b) Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century. False
(c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities. False
(d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years. True
(e)More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi. False
Colonialism and the City Exercise 77
(a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the Jama Masjid.
(b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker. (Please note that Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker designed New Delhi and its buildings.
(c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as unhygienic and unhealthy.
(d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme was devised.
It was10 square mile unwalled city, constructed on Raisina Hill, south of Shahjahanabad or Old Delhi
It was constructed as a walled city with 14 gates, adjoining a fort-place complex, with the river Jamuna flowing near it.
The city had Broad and straight streets.
There were mazes of narrow and winding lanes and by lanes.
The city had sprawling mansions set in the middle of large compounds.
The city had crowded and congested mohallas and hevelis. It was expensive to maintain havelis and thus gradually they fell into decay and disuse.
In colonial cities such as Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, the British lived in the "white" areas.
During the late eighteenth century, the presidential towns of Calcutta. Bombay and Madras rose to prominence as they became the centers of the British power and administration. At this time, many old towns which were manufacturing specialized goods like textiles began to decline. Many old port cities like Surat also declined in importance. People from these cities began to move to new emerging towns. This is known as the process of de-urbanisation.
The British were aware of the symbolic importance of the city of Delhi. It had been the seat of the Mughal Empire since last four hundred years. The Mughal emperor though had lost all his powers and autonomy, he was still important to the people. The revolt of 1857 in Delhi had threatened the existence of the British in India. Therefore, the British choose to hold a grand durbar in Delhi with much pump and show to display the power and authority of the British empire.
The city of Old Delhi was a walled city with 14 gates, a fort palace complex with river Jamuna flowing near it. The city had narrow lanes, havelis, and crowded mohallas with several water channels. After the British gained control of Delhi, they adjusted themselves in the city.
The situation changed after the rebellion of 1857. Since the British realised that the Mughal emperor was still important to the people, they embarked on a mission to rid the city of its Mughal past. Several palaces were demolished and gardens were destroyed and barracks for their troops were built at its place. Buildings adjoining the Red Fort were also demolished. Many mosques were destroyed in the city. No worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for next five years. One third of the city was demolished by the British and its canals were filled up. During 1870s, the enclosing walls of the city were broken down to lay railway lines and further to expand the city. The British began to live in the Civil Lines area away from the Indians in the walled city.
During partition of British India, millions of people were displaced from their homes. Partition changed the social and economic structure of the city. Delhi witnessed an increase in its population. After Indian independence, many Muslims fearing for the loss of their lives fled to Pakistan. Their homes were taken up by the Sikh and the Hindu refugees who came from the newly created state of Pakistan. Many people who were not able to find homes lived in the refugee camps. Nearly five lakhs people were added to the population of Delhi. Most of the migrants were from Punjab who hoped to build new homes. During this time, colonies like Tilak Nagar and Lajpat Nagar sprang up. Partition also changed economic structure of the city. While Muslims who migrated to Pakistan were artisans, small traders and labourers, new population which moved into the city were landlords, teachers, lawyers, traders and small shopkeepers.
These people forced by the circumstances took up work as hawkers, vendors, carpenters and ironsmiths. This also marked a change in the culture of the city. The Urdu based culture was overshadowed by changes in food, dress and language.