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Class 8 NCERT Solutions Geography Chapter 2 - Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources

Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources Exercise 20

Solution 1

(i) The two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation are temperature and rainfall (moisture).

(ii) The two factors contributing to land degradation are Deforestation and the unsystematic and overuse of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural lands, floods landslides etc.

iii) Land is considered an important resource because it is being used by human beings for several purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses and roads, and setting up industries. Also, it provides habitation to a variety of flora and fauna. Hence, it is among the most important natural resources.

(iv) Two steps that the government has taken to conserve plants and animals:

  1. It has set up national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves for the protection of natural vegetation and wildlife.
  2. It has banned the killing of animals and cutting of trees.
  3. Various awareness programmes have been encouraged at the regional and the community level. 

(v) Three ways in which water can be conserved:

  1. Rain-water harvesting
  2. Use of sprinklers for irrigation.
  3. Prevention of wastage of water

Solution 2

Solution 3


(i) Land use

(c) productive use of land

(ii) Humus

(d) organic matter deposited on top soil

(iii) Rock dams

(a) prevent soil erosion

(iv) Biosphere

(b) narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere

Solution 4

(i) True.

Reason - It offers suitable land for agriculture, since it is a fertile land. Also, this provides opportunities employment. Moreover, it has developed means of communication and transport.

(ii) True.

Reason - This is because fresh water is a scarce resource, even after water being in abundance. Also, there is wastage and overuse of water, deforestation, and the pollution and depletion of fresh water reserves -  rivers and ground water.

(iii) False.

Reason - The mentioned process is called shelter belts.

(iv) False.

Reason - Human interference and climatic changes disrupts the environment and also adversely affects the balance of the ecosystem.

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