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Class 8 NCERT Solutions Geography Chapter 4 - Industries

Industries Exercise 41

Solution 1

(i) The term ‘industry’ implies an economic activity involving goods production, mineral extraction or provision of consumer services.


(ii) Several factors determine the particular location of an industry. They include:

   - Transport facilities

   - Provision of capital

   - Availability of land

   - Availability of raw material

   - Water availability

   - Labour supply

   - Power provision

   - Presence of market


(iii) The iron and steel industry is said to be the backbone of the modern industry. It is seen as a ‘feeder industry’ whose products get used as raw materials in other industrial units. Almost everything that humans use is either made of iron or steel, or is produced by making use of tools and machinery made of these metals.



Solution 2



Agro-based Industries

Mineral-based Industries

These use plant and animal products as raw material.

These use minerals ores as raw material.

Mainly these provide employment to the rural households.

Provide employment for rural as well as urban households.

Examples include the cotton textile industry, dairy industry, etc.

Examples include iron and steel industry, copperware industry, etc.




Public-sector Industries

Joint-sector Industries

Public sector companies are owned and operated by the government.

These industries are jointed owned and operated by the government and an individual or a group of individuals.

Examples include Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Defence Research and Development Organisation.

Maruti Udyog Limited is an example.



Solution 3

(i) Raw materials: cotton and steel

(ii) End product: shirt and safety pin

(iii) Tertiary activities: banking and transport

(iv) Agro-based industries: dairy industry and cotton textile industry

(v) Cottage industries: pottery industry and basket-weaving industry

(vi) Co-operatives: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy

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