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Class 8 NCERT Solutions Geography Chapter 3 - Agriculture

Agriculture Exercise 30

Solution 1

(i) Agriculture is a primary activity that involves growing of crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock.

(ii) Factors influencing agriculture are:

  • Topography
  • Climate
  • Soil
  • Technology
  • Population

(iii) Shifting cultivation is a form of agriculture which involves clearing of a plot of land by cutting of trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the land has lost its fertility, it is abandoned.  The farmers then move to a new place.


  • Leads to deforestation
  • Loss of fertility of a particular land
  • Leads to Soil erosion
  • Burning of trees – air pollution
  • Insufficient cultivation of crops for a large population.

(iv) Plantation agriculture is a type of farming that involves growing of one crop on large farms for profit. The crops could be either a cash crop or beverage crops such as coffee, tea, sugarcane, rubber, banana or cotton. This farming requires large amount of labour and capital. The produce is processed either on the farm or some nearby factories. This type of farming can be found in tropical regions of the world – India, Sri Lanka and Brazil.

(v) Fibre crops - Jute and Cotton

Jute requires the following conditions –

  • High temperature
  • Heavy rainfall
  • Humid climate

Cotton requires the following conditions –

  • High temperature
  • Light rainfall
  • Bright sunshine
  • Two hundred and ten frost free days

Solution 2

Solution 3

(i) In India, agriculture is a primary activity because:

  • Many regions in India have fertile land that is favourable for agriculture.
  • Due to lack of literacy among the people, they prefer agriculture (skills for these can be learnt from their ancestors.) Therefore, two-thirds of the Indian population still depends on it.

India being a densely populated country requires food production on a large scale to fulfil the people needs.

(ii) Growing of the crops depends on a variety of factors such as:

  • Type of Climate of a place/region
  • Amount of rainfall in a particular place/ region
  • Favourable topography of soil
  • Demand of produce
  • Labour and Technology level
  • Different lifestyles of people staying at a particular place/region

Hence, different crops are grown in different regions.

Solution 4

(i) Difference between Primary and Secondary activities.

Primary activities

Secondary activities

These are activities through which natural resources are obtained.

These are activities that support the primary and the secondary sector.

Examples: Mining, Fishing, Agriculture

Examples: Communication, Transport, Services like Bank or Advertising.

(ii) Difference between Subsistence and Intensive farming.

Subsistence Farming

Intensive Farming

It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to cultivate crops for himself and his family, in order to meet their needs.

It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to increase production of crops by involving tools and extra labour.

This farming is done for personal consumption.

This farming is done for gaining profits.

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