NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 - Understanding Secularism

What does it mean to be secular? Find out while reading our NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 Understanding Secularism. Learn about the different festivals celebrated by people representing the diversity in India. Understand why it is important for religions to live in harmony with one another by going through our textbook solutions by experts.

NCERT textbook solutions for CBSE Class 8 Civics will also cover the three main schools of thought according to the teachings of Buddha. Revise the lessons further with TopperLearning’s concept-based online practice tests.

Read  more
Page / Exercise

Chapter 2 - Understanding Secularism Exercise 26

Solution 1

The various types of religious practices found in my neighbourhood are

  • Hindus performing Puja and celebrating their various festivals.
  • Muslims offering Namaz.
  • Sikhs visiting the Gurudwara.
  • Christians praying in the Church.

Yes, it does implicate freedom of religious practice because many people belonging to different cultures and religions stay together and celebrate festivals.

Solution 2

Yes, the government needs to intervene if some religious groups say that their religion allows them to practise infanticide because it involves killing of an innocent child, which is against an important fundamental right - The Right to Life. No one is allowed to go against a fundamental right. Infanticide leads to a variation in the male-female ratio, and it results in the number of boys increasing with respect to the number of girls.

The government either interferes in this tradition by coercion or by support. 

Solution 3

Objective

Why is this important?

Example of a violation of this objective

One religious community does not dominate another.

To avoid discrimination.

To protect the Fundamental Right of Freedom of Religion.

The riots against Muslims in Gujarat in 2002, triggered by Godhra train burning.

The State does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.

India is a secular country and it allows its citizens the freedom to choose whichever religion they wish to follow.

In February 2004, France banning headscarves and turbans in public places.

That some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.

It discriminates and violates the fundamental rights of the dominated members.

Also, individual freedom should be respected.

During olden times, Dalits were looked down upon and troubled by the upper caste Hindus.

 

Solution 4

Month

Holiday

Essence of Holiday

January

Republic Day

The Republic Day of India is a national holiday in India to mark the adoption of the Constitution of India and the transition of India from a British Dominion to a republic on 26 January 1950. It is one of the three national holidays in India.

February

Guru Ravidass Jayanti

Guru Ravidass Jayanti is the birthday of Guru Ravidass, celebrated on Magh Purnima, the full moon day in the month of Magh

month (February). It is the annual focal point for the Ravidassia religion.

March

Maha Shivratri

Worship of Lord Shiva occurs on the 14th night of the new moon during the dark half of the month of Phalguna. It falls on a moonless March night, when Hindus offer special prayers to the lord of destruction.

April

Mahavir Jayanti

In Jainism, Mahavir Jayanti is the most important religious holiday. It celebrates the birth of Mahavira, the last Tirthankara. He was born on the 13th day of the rising moon of Chaitra, in either 599 BC or 615 BC (depending on religious tradition).

May

Buddha Purnima

Buddha Jayanti or Buddha Purnima is the most sacred festival of the Buddhists. Buddha Purnima (Buddha Birthday) is celebrated in remembrance of Lord Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.

August

Krishna Janmastami

Krishna Janmashtami, also known as Krishnashtami, Saatam Aatham, Gokulashtami, Ashtami Rohini, Srikrishna Jayanti, Sree Jayanthi or sometimes merely as Janmashtami, is a Hindu festival celebrating the birth of Lord Krishna, an avatar of the Hindu deity Vishnu.

September

Ganesh Chaturthi

Ganesha Chaturthi, also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi, is the Hindu festival of Ganesha. It is the birthday of Lord Ganesha who is widely worshipped as the god of wisdom, prosperity and good fortune.

October

Bakri Id

Muslims around the world believe that Allah (God) commanded Ibrahim (Abraham) to sacrifice his son Ishmael. Ibrahim followed God's orders, but his son was replaced by a sheep at the last moment. Muslims celebrate this at Eid al-Adha. Eid al-Adha is called Id-ul-Adha in Arabic and Bakr-Id in the Indian subcontinent, because of the tradition of sacrificing a goat or 'bakr' in Urdu.

November

Diwali

Diwali (often written Deepavali) is a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism. Adherents of these religions celebrate Diwali as the Festival of Lights. They light diyas (cotton-like string wicks inserted in small clay pots filled with coconut oil) to signify victory of good over evil within an individual.

December

Christmas

Christmas or Christmas Day is a holiday observed on 25 December to commemorate the birth of Lord Jesus, the central figure of Christianity.

 

Solution 5

There are three main schools of thought in Buddhism:

1. Theravada

2. Mahayana

3. Varjayana

Let us understand each of these individually.

 

Theravada: In the Theravada school of thought, the Theravadians believe in self-enlightenment where they perfected themselves with morality, meditation and insight in order to gain enlightenment themselves.

When the perfectly enlightened Lord Buddha attained the stage of enlightenment, he questioned himself as to whether his fellow humans could understand his teaching or the Way of Life to get out of the suffering state of mind. He was coaxed by his followers that although not all humans can understand his teachings, there were a very few who could. Lord Buddha thus proceeded to teach these very few to attain enlightenment by themselves. This was the birth of Therava Buddhism.

 

Mahayanas: This school of thought believed that in their course of enlightenment, they would help others to the stage of enlightenment as well.

To attain Wisdom, you need to meditate in order to realise the true nature of things; to meditate, you need a pure state of mind, and to uphold this pure state constantly, you need to conduct yourselves morally. Therefore, morality was an important stepping stone to wisdom. Later, where morality became more focused, great compassion was generated, and the wish to help others along as one seeks enlightenment became part of Buddhism. The birth of Mahayana was born.

 

Varjayana: This school of thought believed that not only to bring others to enlightenment but also to have the power to do that.

The birth of Varjayana was largely due to the empowerment of the energies in the process of concentration, where you are empowered not only by the natural elements but also the linage with supreme beings.

 

It must be noted that Lord Buddha taught not only humans but beings of formless realms, including gods and deities.

Solution 6

Yes, the idea is confusing as sometimes the Indian State keeps away from religion and sometimes intervenes in religion. Please discuss the rest of the question in your class with your subject teacher. 

Chapter 2 - Understanding Secularism Exercise 27

Solution 7

The sentences in the poster are trying to convey that in order to achieve peace we need to find something in common among ourselves. We need to know that we all are the same although we have our differences. Ignoring differences or overlooking them will not help us in any way, as sometime or the other, they are surely going to surface. In addition, peace that is not from within is not peace. All this can be done only if we work together to achieve peace, and it should be done mutually.

Differences can be removed among people by breaking existing barriers, developing common dialogue and promoting peace.

This relates to the need of religious tolerance because if peace can be brought about in this matter, the whole world will automatically achieve peace.