Class 8 NCERT Solutions Civics Chapter 1 - The Indian Constitution
The Indian Constitution Exercise 16
A Constitution is needed for a democratic country because the basic principle of a democracy is to allow freedom to its people. However, because people would like to follow things according to their freedom, there is a need for making rules. Rules are essential for efficient and proper governance of a country.
The Constitution is an important document containing a body of principles or rules according to which a state or an organisation is governed. It is the written law of the land. It is on the basis of provisions in the Constitution that governance in the country is carried out.
A democratic country needs a Constitution because
- It gives valuable information about the composition of the government regarding its structure, organs, duties and responsibilities.
- It regulates the relationship between the various organs as well as between citizens and the government.
- It lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country that the citizens aspire to and the fundamental nature of our society.
- It has a system of checks and balances which prevents the misuse of power vested in the government.
- It also defines the country’s political system.
- It guarantees several fundamental rights to citizens in order to protect them for any injustice faced by them.
- It also saves us from ourselves, i.e. if we ever think of taking any steps that might harm us or go against us in the long run, it helps guard us.
- It protects the rights of the minorities from the suppression faced by the majority.
The differences in who exercises ‘Executive Power’ in the two constitutions of Nepal are
- In 1990, Nepal had a monarchy, while in 2007 it changed to a democratic country.
- In the 1990 Constitution, the supreme power was held by the king and his authority, while in the 2007 Interim Constitution, it is vested with the Council of Ministers under the leadership of the Prime Minister.
- In the 1990 Constitution, the ultimate power would be in the hands of the king, while in 2007, it is in the hands of the people.
Nepal needs a new Constitution today because it has become a democratic country. Hence, the executive powers need to be in the hands of the Council of Ministers who will be elected by the people of Nepal. In addition, the previous Constitution did not reflect the ideals of the country or what the people of that country believed in.
If there would have been no restrictions on the power of elected representatives, the power would have been misused by them for their needs.
This would have resulted in gross injustice against the people of the country.
As the Constitution safeguards the interest of the people against the misuse of authority, it segregated power under three organs/segments:
- The Legislature
- The Executive
- The Judiciary
In this manner, each of these organs keeps a check on the other organs and their powers. This helps them to maintain a healthy balance of power between themselves.
The answers are as follows:
a) 10 female teachers fall under the Minority category. It is important to respect the views of the minority so that they do not feel left out or underpowered by the majority.
b) The 5% Buddhist population fall under the Minority category. It is important to respect the views of the minority so that they are not dominated by the majority religion to change their religion and are respected irrespective of their belief.
c) 20% of the non-vegetarians fall under the Minority category. It is important to respect the views of the minority because non-vegetarian food is an integral part of their diet, and it should not happen that the factory does not provide them with that. In addition, consuming non-vegetarian food is a personal choice.
d) 10 students of not well-off families fall under the Minority category. It is important to respect the views of the minority so that there is no kind of distinction or discrimination with respect to the income earned by their families. The well-off kids should be taught not to tease or harass the poor kids.
1. It refers to the existence of more than one level of government in the country, i.e. the power is divided among a central authority and its various constituent units.
2. It has dual objectives-to safeguard and promote the unity of the country, while at the same time, to accommodate regional diversity.
Separation of Powers
1. It is a constitutional principle which limits the power vested in any one person or organisation.
2. Also, so that power is not misused by any one branch of the government, the Constitution divided the power among the three organs of the government-Legislature, Executive and the Judiciary.
1. Fundamental Rights constitute the backbone of the nation, and they are very essential to safeguard the interests of the people.
2. It acts as a guarantee that all Indian citizens can and will live their lives in peace as long as they live according to the Indian democracy.
Parliamentary Form of Government
1. It guarantees universal adult franchise, i.e. the people of India have a direct role in electing their representatives either for the state or for the country.
2. Any person, irrespective of his class, status, creed, sex and income, can contest elections and is accountable to the people who have elected him.
The Indian Constitution Exercise 17
Bangladesh: West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram
Bhutan: West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim
Nepal: West Bengal, Sikkim, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand