NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 4 - The Mughal Empire
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Chapter 4 - The Mughal Empire Exercise 57
Chapter 4 - The Mughal Empire Exercise 58
(a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar's half-brother, was Kabul.
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda.
(c) If zat determined a mansabdar's rank and salary, sawar indicated his military responsibility.
(d) Abul Fazl, Akbar's friend and counselor, helped him frame the idea of sulh-i kul so that he could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.
The central provinces under Mughal control were as follows:
A jagir was a revenue assignment given as salary to the mansabdars. The mansabdars had to collect revenue from their jagir. However, they were forbidden from residing in it. The revenue was collected for the mansabdars by their servants while the mansabdars themselves served in some other part of the country.
In the Mughal administration, the zamindar was given the responsibility of collection of revenue from the peasantry. The zamindar was in every sense a part of the rural elite, much like the village headman or the chieftains who operated as intermediaries between the ruler and the peasants.
The debates with the religious scholars helped Akbar realise that religious figures were often bigots who obsessed over rituals and dogmas rather than seeking religious harmony. They further assisted him in formulating the concept of ‘sulh-i-kul’ or universal peace. This faith did not prescribe discrimination between citizens and enabled Akbar to formulate guidelines based on a system of ethics, justice, honesty and peace.
The Mughals stressed on their Timrid rather than their Mongol descent because the memory of Mongol lord Genghiz Khan was associated with the massacre of a vast number of people. It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol competitors. On the flip side, the Mughals took pride in the fact that Timur, their great ancestor, had captured the city of Delhi in 1398.
Chapter 4 - The Mughal Empire Exercise 59
The income from land revenue which was, in effect, taxes on the produce paid by the peasantry, was the main source of income for the Mughal rulers and hence it was very important.
The Mughal emperor felt compelled to appoint mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just from among the Turanis and Iranis. This was because the Mughal Empire had expanded greatly to include within its fold different provinces and regions and the Emperor could not risk the possibility of a rebellion lest the officials from the same background formed a clique.
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