Class 7 NCERT Solutions History Chapter 3 - The Delhi Sultans
The Delhi Sultans Exercise 43
Ananga Pala from the Tomara dynasty of Rajputs first established his capital at Delhi.
The Delhi Sultanate reached its farthest extent during the rule of Muhammad Tughluq of the Tughluq dynasty.
Ibn Batuta traveled to India from Morocco, a country in North Africa.
The Delhi Sultans Exercise 44
According to the circle of justice, it was imperative for military commanders to safeguard and look after the interests of the peasantry. This was because a monarch was dependent on his soldiers for survival, the soldiers were dependent for their survival on their salaries, and the salaries were paid from the land revenue collected from the peasants. The peasants could pay the revenue only when they were prosperous and happy. Therefore, it was important for the military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind.
The ‘internal frontiers’ of the Sultanate were, in fact, the garrison towns situated in the hinterlands. On the flip side, the external frontiers implied the hitherto unconquered territories, especially in the southern reaches of the Indian peninsula.
In order to ensure that the muqtis performed their duties efficiently, their office was made non-inheritable. Also, they were allotted iqtas for short periods of time and were transferred often. The muqtis were a crucial cog in the administrative apparatus of the Sultanate and hence the eventuality of a rebellion by them was taken very seriously.
Following the invasions of the Mongols, the Sultans of Delhi were compelled to undertake several expensive protective measures. They had to mobilise a large standing army which in itself was a cumbersome task. Further, garrison towns had to be built to house troops and taxes had to be collected on a large scale to sustain them. The soldiers also had to be paid cash, an added strain on the treasury. The combined effect of all this was the weakening of the Delhi Sultanate.
The authors of the tawarikh lived in the cities like Delhi. They hardly ever traversed to the remote villages and towns of rural heartland. They wrote the histories of the Sultans in the expectation of getting rewards. Therefore, they would not write anything about the lives of ordinary men and women of the Sultanate.
Prepare your statement on the basis of your own opinion and then discuss it with your teacher, friends, parents.
The Delhi Sultans were inclined to cut down forests on a large scale because they wished to hand over the cleared land to peasants for the purpose of cultivation. This is still one of the important reasons why deforestation takes place in India today.