Class 7 NCERT Solutions History Chapter 2 - New Kings and Kingdoms
New Kings and Kingdoms Exercise 28
Gujarat and Rajasthan
The tripartite struggle was fought between the Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties for the control over the city of Kanauj.
The qualifications required to serve as a member of a committee of the Sabha in the Chola Empire were as follows:
(i) Ownership of land from which land revenue was collected.
(ii) Ownership of a private home.
(iii) Between 35 to 70 years of age.
(iv) Knowledge of the Vedas.
(v) Honesty and experience in administrative matters.
New Kings and Kingdoms Exercise 29
Two major cities controlled by the Chahamanas were Delhi and Ajmer.
Initially, the Rashtrakutas were vassals of the Chalukyas of Karnataka. However, in the middle of the eight century, Rashtrakuta chief Dantidurga defeated his Chalukya overlord and performed the hiranyagarbha ritual, establishing his right to rule. The hiranyagarbha right had a symbolic significance in the sense that it was believed to lead to the rebirth of a kshatriya. Hence, through a mixture of military prowess and ritualistic gestures, the Rashtrakutas became powerful in India.
In order to gain acceptance, the new dynasties undertook several endeavours. Important amongst them was military warfare in order to carve out an independent kingdom, assuming of new grandiose titles and performance of religious rituals for being accepted within the Kshatriya fold.
The irrigation works that were developed in the Tamil region were as follows:
(i) Wells were dug in several areas and tanks were built in order to collect rainwater.
(ii) Forests were cleared on a large scale and land was leveled.
(iii) Embankments were built in the delta region in order to prevent flooding and canals were built so that water could be transported to the fields.
The Chola temples often emerged as the centre around which human settlements would grow and the crafts industries would prosper. They were awarded land grants by the ruling classes, the produce from which would be utilised in order to pay the specialist workforce – the priests, garland makers, sweepers, musicians, cooks, dancers - that was necessary to maintain a temple complex. To encapsulate, under the Cholas, the temples were not only places of worship but also hubs of social, cultural and economic activities.