Class 7 NCERT Solutions History Chapter 8 - Eighteenth-Century Political Formations
Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Exercise 104
a. False. Nadir Shah invaded Delhi.
b. False. Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.
- The Sikhs had emerged as a political community in the 17th century in Punjab.
- Under several able leaders in the eighteenth century, the Sikhs organised themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls.
- Their combined forces were known as the grand army (dal khalsa). Guru Gobind Singh had inspired the Khalsa with the belief that their destiny was to rule.
- After his death in 1708, the Khalsa rose in revolt against the Mughal authority under Banda Bahadur's leadership, declared their sovereign rule by striking coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh, and established their own administration between the Sutlej and the Jamuna.
- In the late 18th century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh emerged as a powerful Sikh king and established his capital at Lahore.
The might of the Mughal Empire began to decline in the 18th century after the death of Aurangzeb. The Marathas had already emerged as a powerful race. They wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to further reduce the influence of the Mughals and to increase their own might in in the region.
No, I don't think that merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century. In the 18th century, the bankers and merchants were very powerful and controlled all the lending activities. They gave loan to the people at a very high rate of interest and even cheated the common people.
In today's times, the bankers operate as per the law of the land and they cannot charge a very exorbitant rate of interest. Since we are living in a democratic set up today and people are educated, bankers can be sued in the courts for committing any fraud.
This question needs to be answered by the students based on the state or the region where they live.