NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 - Eighteenth-Century Political Formations

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Chapter 10 - Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Exercise 153

Solution 1

 

Subadar

Provincial governor

Faujdar

A Mughal Military commander

Ijaradar         

A revenue farmer

Misl

A band of Sikh warriors

Chauth

Tax levied by the Marathas

Kunbis  

Maratha peasant warriors

Umara

A high noble  

                

 

Solution 2
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the Deccan.

(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal administration.

(c) Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in 1724.

(d) The founder of the Awadh state was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat  Khan.
Solution 3
(a) False

(b) False

(c) True

(d) True

Solution 4

Sa'adat Khan held the offices of diwani, subadari and faujdari.

Chapter 10 - Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Exercise 154

Solution 5

The Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal made attempts to subvert the jagirdari system as they wished to prevent cheating as well as limit the influence of the Mughal Emperor in their respective kingdoms.

Solution 6

In the 18th century, the Sikhs were organised into bands called ‘jathas’, which later came to be known as ‘misls’. Their combined forces were called the ‘dal khalsa’ or the grand army. The entire body assembled at Amritsar during Baisakhi and Diwali to arrive at collective decisions known as ‘gurumatas’ or the ‘resolutions of the guru’. A system called ‘rakhi’ was also developed in order to protect cultivators in return of a payment of tax, which was 20% of the total agricultural produce.

Solution 7

The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan so that they could receive tribute from other territories in the Indian hinterland. This had a symbolic significance and was seen as a way to compel other rulers to accept Maratha suzerainty. They also sought to control trade and agriculture through political expansion, as it brought with it enormous riches.

Solution 8

In order to augment his power and strengthen his position, Asaf Jah brought trained soldiers and skilled administrators from North India to the Deccan. He also appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs. Although still a servant of the Mughal emperor, he administered the Hyderabad state independently without seeking any direction from Delhi or facing any interference.