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Class 6 NCERT Solutions Science Chapter 16 - Garbage In, Garbage Out

Garbage In, Garbage Out Exercise 164

Solution 1

(a) The garbage which contains pieces of cloth, broken glass, aluminum wrappers, polythene bags, nails, broken toys, and old shoes cannot be converted into compost by worms.

Concept insight: Non-biodegradable wastes cannot be decomposed.

(b) Yes, a pit might contain other soil microbes such as bacteria, other species of earthworms such as brandling worm and red wiggler worm.

 Concept insight: Soil is home to numerous useful and harmful microorganisms.

Solution 2

(a) Proper disposal of garbage should be a concern of every citizen, and not just of the government. Each and every individual must reduce activities that pollute the environment. A lot of waste is generated from homes, offices, schools, hospitals, etc. It includes food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal, etc. Therefore, it is required that every individual must reduce the production of wastes and must help in the proper disposal of these wastes.

Concept insight: Reduction in use of plastics and reuse of paper is helpful in reducing the amount of waste generated.

(b) Yes, it is possible to reduce problems related to disposal of garbage. Here are some steps that can be followed by every individual to reduce the problem of garbage disposal.
(i) Avoid using plastic bags. Encourage shopkeepers to use paper bags or always carry a cloth or jute bag while shopping.
(ii) Save paper. Use both sides of paper to write.
(iii) Use separate bins for recyclable and non-recyclable waste.
(iv) Kitchen waste that includes fruit and vegetable peels, waste food, tea leaves, etc. can be used to make manure.
(v) Encourage your family, friends, and others to follow proper disposal practices.

Concept insight: We can reduce the amount of waste produced by using three R's formula i.e. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Also, we should use separate dustbins for biodegradable and non biodegradable substances.

Solution 3

(a) We collect the left over food to make compost. It provides nutrients essential for the growth and development of plants.
 (b) We would prefer to eat food in a banana leaf platter. This is because a leaf platter is a harmless substance that can be used to make manure by the process of composting, whereas plastic plates cannot be converted into harmless substances by composting. They remain in the environment and create many problems.

Concept insight: Recall the concept of composting.

Solution 4

(a) All type of paper can be recycled.

Concept insight: Paper is a biodegradable substance.

(b) It is impossible to find out the difference between a recycled and a new sheet of paper. However, it is believed that recycled paper is usually of low quality.

Concept insight: Recycling of paper

Solution 5

(a) The different kinds of packaging materials commonly used includes:
(i) Plastic bags for carrying eatables or other household things.
(ii) Cloth or jute bags for carrying fruits, vegetables, or other groceries.
(iii) Paper bags for carrying small groceries, packing of food, etc.

(b) The usage of plastic bags must be reduced as packaging of cooked food items in plastic bags might affect our health. Also, plastic bags are non-recyclable and burning of plastic bags may release harmful gases that can cause many health diseases.

(c) Packaging increases the amount of garbage as we keep on throwing the packaging materials carelessly on roads and other places. Also, since these packaging materials (mainly plastic covers) are non-recyclable, they keep lying on the roads and cannot be properly disposed off. Sometimes, they get into drains and sewer systems and block them, creating more problems.

Concept insight: Plastics are non-biodegradable substances which they pollute the environment.

Solution 6

Yes, it is better to use compost instead of chemical fertilisers. This is because compost is prepared from plant and animal wastes, therefore, it easily gets decomposed off. It does not add any harmful chemicals to the soil, whereas an excessive use of chemical fertilisers causes soil and water pollution.

Concept insight: Compost is formed of biodegradable wastes rich in nutrients. While chemical fertilizers provide one or two nutrients to the soil. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers makes soil unfit for cultivation.