Class 6 NCERT Solutions History Chapter 9 - Vital Villages, Thriving Towns
Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Exercise 98
In present times, the drainage system is better and highly developed. This is because the drainage system has been made underground which is covered with drains. Also, the drainage pipes of the kitchen, bathrooms are connected to the main drains outside the house. In ancient times, the cities had ring well system. It was a row of pots and ceramic rings arranged one top of another.
Drainage system were and are found in individual houses.
The sickle would have been important for agriculture.
The axe would have been used to chop wood and clear forests.
The tongs would have been used to lift burning coals or other hot objects by the ironsmiths.
Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Exercise 97
(a) Vellalar was a word used for large landowners in Tamil.
(b) The gramabhojaka often got his land cultivated by the slaves and hired workers.
(c) Ploughmen were known as uzhavar in Tamil.
(d) Most griphapatis were smaller landowners.
In the northern part of India, the village headman was known as the gramabhojaka. His post was hereditary.
His functions included collection of taxes, to act as a judge and be a policeman sometimes.
He was considered powerful because he was the largest landowner and had slaves and hired workers to cultivate the land.
The crafts persons who would be present in both villages and cities were blacksmiths, goldsmiths, carpenters, potters, weavers, statue makers, basket makers, garland makers, etc.
(c) religious centre
(d) crafts persons