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Class 6 NCERT Solutions Civics Chapter 8 - Urban Livelihoods

Urban Livelihoods Exercise 77

Solution 1

The given paragraph gives us an idea about the living conditions of labourers.

  • The labourers found at Labour Chowk have no living place as they have a very low income, which does not allow them to afford accommodation.
  • Sleeping on the pavement is the only option they have to accommodation.
  • Also, most workers would be daily wage earners, and they cannot always afford spending Rs 6 per night for sleeping in the night shelter run by the government. 
  • The workers keep their tools etc. at the tea stalls or cigarette shops, and they have to pay money to the shopkeeper, which results in an added expense.
  • Borrowing money from local cigarette and tea shops may not be a good option as these can charge an exorbitant amount of interest for very small sums of money.

Therefore, it is vital that the government takes significant measures to provide these people with proper accommodation and living conditions.

Urban Livelihoods Exercise 78

Solution 2






Place of Work


Security of Work

Benefits Received

Work on their own or employed

Bachchu Manjhi

 Bus Stop

Rs 100 per day

No security


 Works on his own

Harpreet, Vandana

 Readymade garments/showroom

 2-3 lakhs p.m

Have lisence to do business


Work on their own


Garment factory

 Rs 80 a day +

Rs 40 extra for working late

No security





Rs 30,000 pm

 Job security

Savings for old age,

Paid Holidays,

Medical facilities


Solution 3

The differences between a permanent job and a casual job are as follows:


Sr. No.

Permanent Job

Casual Job


Fixed working hours

Working hours are not fixed


Better and regular salary

Bad and irregular salary


Extra benefits

No benefits


Job security

No security


Savings possible

Savings very rarely possible


Comfort level - High

Comfort level - Low


Solution 4

Along with her salary, Sudha gets the following benefits:

  • Savings for old age: A part of her salary is kept in a fund as savings with the government from which she earns interest. When she retires from the job, she will get this money and she can then live on that.
  • Holidays: She gets an off on Sundays and national holidays. She also gets some days as annual leave.
  • Medical facilities for her family: Her company pays the medical expenses up to a certain amount for her and her family members. She gets medical leave if she falls ill, and her salary is not deducted if she takes this leave.

Solution 5

Go to the different places in the market along with an elder person so that they can help you to fill the table. Go to shops that you regularly visit. Ask the head of the shop the name of their shop and also the nature of the service that the shop provides. With the information you collect, fill in the columns of the table.

The following example answer is provided for reference.


Name of the shop or office

Nature of the service provided

Asha Cables

Provides cable lines

Hari Om Farsan and Sweet Mart

Sells sweets

Prakash Dresses

Sells clothes and readymade garments

Swan Dry Cleaners

Dry cleaning

Mohan Cobbler

Mending footwear

Toofan Repair Shop

Repairing work

Rima Stores

Sells grocery

Henry Footwear

Sells footwear

Pro Opticals

Making and repairing of spectacles


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