NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Resource and Development

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Chapter 1 - Resource and Development Exercise 12

Solution 1

(i) (d) Non-renewable

(ii) (a) Replenishable

(iii) (c) Over irrigation

(iv) (d) Uttarakhand

(v) (b) Gujarat

Chapter 1 - Resource and Development Exercise 13

Solution 2

(i) The states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh have black soil. The crop which is mainly grown in this soil is cotton. This soil is also called ‘Regur’ or black cotton soil.

(ii) The river deltas of the eastern coast have alluvial soil.

The main features of alluvial soil are:

(a) These soils are very fertile and so ideal for cultivation.

(b) They contain adequate quantities of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which is good for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, and other crops.

(c) Alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.

(iii) In hilly areas, soil erosion can be controlled by contour ploughing which is ploughing along contour-lines, using terrace farming techniques and using strips of grasses to check soil erosion by wind and water.

(iv) Biotic Resources: The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic Resources. Examples of biotic resources are animals, plants, human beings, fish, livestock etc.

Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. Examples of abiotic resources are, water, minerals, metals, wind, solar energy etc. 

Solution 3

i) Land used by humans is known as land use. In India, land is mainly divided into agricultural land, forest land, pasture land, grazing land and waste land. Waste and barren lands are not used for cultivation purposes. Besides cultivation, lands are also used for non agricultural purposes like construction of roads, buildings and factories etc.

In India, 22.5% of the land is under the forest cover. The land under net sown area is 45.24%. While 3.38% of land are permanent pastures and used for grazing, 12.01% of the total land is unculturable waste lands.

Land under forest has not increased since 1960-61 due to deforestation, mining activities, quarrying, building of large dams and highways.

(ii) During the colonial era, imperial powers used their technological and military superiority to colonise the weaker nations. After colonizing them, they gained greater access to the country’s natural resources.

At present, advancement in technology has led to large scale production leading to over utilisation of resources. In India, technological advancement has led to greater exploitation and consumption of resources. Further, increase in the population of the country due to improved medical and health facilities has led to rapid consumption of the resources.