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Class 10 NCERT Solutions Geography Chapter 5 - Minerals and Energy Resources

Minerals and Energy Resources Exercise 55

Solution 1

(i) (b) bauxite

(ii) (b) mica

(iii) (a) sedimentary rocks

(iv) (c) thorium

Minerals and Energy Resources Exercise 56

Solution 2


(a) Minerals containing iron are called ferrous minerals, e.g., iron ore, manganese, nickel cobalt. Minerals which do not contain iron are called non-ferrous minerals, e.g., bauxite, lead and gold.

(b) Conventional sources of energy are the non renewable sources of energy. They have been in use since a long period of time. They are also responsible for the pollution of the environment. Exmaple- coal and petroleum. Non conventional sources of energy are renewable source of energy. It’s only recently that they have begun to be used. They are cleaner sources of energy. Example- solar energy and geothermal energy.

 (ii) Minerals can be defined as naturally occurring, homogenous substances with definite chemical composition

(iii) In igneous and metamorphic rocks, molten/liquid and gaseous minerals are forced upwards through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They then cool and solidify as they rise. They are seen in cracks, faults and joints . The smaller occurrences are called veins while the larger are lodes.

(iv) Both agriculture and industry are strongly dependent upon mineral deposits. We need to conserve minerals since it takes millions of years to create these mineral deposits that we are rapidly consuming. Since the geological processes are so slow the rates of replenishment are minimal as compared to the present rates of consumption. As a result mineral resources are finite and nonrenewable and we need to conserve them. Continued extraction of ores leads to increase in costs of extraction and a decrease in quality as well as quantity. Every effort has to be made to use our mineral resources in a planned sustainable manner and conserve them for the future.

Solution 3

(i) In India coal deposits occur in rock series of two geological ages namely Gondwana coal deposits, which are about 200 million years old and tertiary deposits that are only about 55 million years old.The major resources of Gondwana coal which are metallurgical coal are located in Damodar Valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand). Jharia, Ranigunj, and Bokaro are important coal fields. Besides, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valley also contain coal deposits.Tertiary coal deposits are found in the North-Eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

(ii)  Solar energy has a bright future in India because –
1. India being a tropical country receives sunlight in abundance throughout the year so there are enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.  

2. Solar plants can be easily established in rural and remote areas.

3. It will minimize the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation. As solar energy is a cleaner source of energy, it is clearly preferred over conventional sources of energy.

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