NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 6(B) - Challenges to National IntegRation

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Chapter 6(B) - Challenges to National IntegRation Exercise 209

Solution 1(1)

The poet dreams of an egalitarian society. He dreams of a land where people have freedom to think. He contemplates for a world where the minds are free from any fear leading to a complete development of one's individuality. Thus, the world becomes progressive and abounded with knowledge.

Solution 1(2)

The "domestic walls" in the poem refer to the petty social divisions prevailing in the society such as caste, creed, religion region, etc.

Solution 1(3)

The poet calls the "domestic walls" narrow as they are making the society stagnant and incapable for progress and revolutionary idea are unable to proliferate through these walls. Thus, it is capturing the society in old and obsolete customs, stopping it from evolving.

Solution 1(4)

The clear stream of reason loses its way when old customs and traditions shackle the society and people's thoughts from reaching "the depth of truth".

Solution 1(5)

The poet appeals to God to bestow humans with reason and that all the boundaries constraining the progress of mankind to be dissolved. He wishes for an ideal society which would lead people's minds into ever-widening thoughts and action. He prays to God to lead humans into a heaven where they may experience the purest form of freedom, unconstrained growth of this race and, just as said before, where people have freedom to think and their actions may be reasonable.

Chapter 6(B) - Challenges to National IntegRation Exercise 214

Solution 4(1)

(a) lack of formal education and riches

Solution 4(2)

(a) secure

Solution 4(3)

(c) withdrawal of train halt at Rameshwaram station

Solution 4(4)

(c) newspapers thrown from the moving train had to be collected

Solution 4(5)

(b) it was the first wages he had earned

Solution 4(6)

(b) father

Solution 4(7)

(a) religious differences

Solution 4(8)

(c) all embracing outlook on religion and communities

Solution 4(9)

(b) as our new teacher wanted it

Solution 4(10)

(a) it was wrong on his part to discriminate on the basis of religion

Solution 4(11)

(c) he encouraged people of different communities and castes to mix up freely

Solution 4(12)

(a) she had understood and adopted her husband's outlook on the oneness of mankind

Solution 4(13)

(a) encourage him to be adventurous and fearless

Solution 4(14)

(b) discrimination and boycott on the basis of one's faith

Chapter 6(B) - Challenges to National IntegRation Exercise 217

Solution 5

a. That despite their not too good financial conditions they used to feed far more outsiders with them than all the members of their own family put together.

b. His father used to cater to all the necessities in terms of food, medicine and clothes.

c. Samsuddin, Kalam's cousin who distributed the newspapers needed a helping hand to collect the bundles, as now, due to the halt, the newspapers were bundled and thrown out from the moving train on the Rameswaram Road between Rameswaram and Dhanuskodi. So, Kalam got a chance to help his cousin and earn his first wages for the first time.

d. It was the first time ever in his life that he had earned wages on his own.

e. Kalam and his siblings inherited honesty and self-discipline from their father; from their mother, they inherited faith in goodness and deep kindness.

f. Though his friends were from orthodox Hindu Brahmin families, as children, none of them ever felt any difference amongst themselves because of their religious differences and upbringing.

g. (i) During the annual Shri Sita Rama Kalyanam ceremony, Kalam's family, despite being followers of Islam, used to arrange boats with a special platform for carrying idols of the Lord from the temple to the marriage site. Not just this, his mother and grandmother used to tell stories from events from not just life of Prophet but also from the Ramayana (epic of Hindus).

(ii) In fifth grade Kalam and his dear friend Ramanadha Sastry were separated by a new teacher, on the basis of religious differences; both Kalam and his Sastry told their respective parents about the incident. Lakshmana Sastry, who was the highest priest in Rameswaram temple, summoned the teacher and told the teacher not to fill nubile minds of children with the dirt of communalism and made him apologise for his act.

h. Such people who spread the dirt of communalism in the society. And in this case when the person in question is an educator he should be severely punished so that he doesn't pollute young minds with such petty issues and shackle their intellectual growth and jeopardise their progress.

i. They are faithful to mankind and propound secularity. They are truly religious as they teach children to be honest and self-disciplined and to have faith in goodness and deep kindness. They fight the bad elements of the society who are hindrance in co-existence.

j. This time the wife of his teacher herself served food to Kalam in the kitchen.

Chapter 6(B) - Challenges to National IntegRation Exercise 218

Solution 8(1)

(b) came up

Solution 8(2)

(b) locate

Solution 8(3)

(c) victim

Solution 8(4)

(a) was found suitable for the purpose

Solution 8(5)

(a) tolerate

Solution 8(6)

(c) dejected

Solution 8(7)

(b) agitated

Solution 8(8)

(a) at hand

Chapter 6(B) - Challenges to National IntegRation Exercise 220

Solution 9

Column A

Column A

Break out

start suddenly and strongly

To look for

to try to find somebody or something

To take over

to obtain or assume control of something, or gain control of something from somebody else

To go into

to begin a job or career in a particular area of activity

On the whole

as a rule or in general taking all relevant factors into account

Chapter 6(B) - Challenges to National IntegRation Exercise 223

Solution 13(a)

Indian population comprises various races, religions, cultures and language groups. Thus, due to this cultural diversity, national integration becomes the prime objective. In order to establish peace and stability and ensure progress, people from different societies must be brought together into one single nation with a national consciousness.

Solution 13(b)

National integration aims at improving socio-cultural relations, reducing economic inequalities and strengthening unity and solidarity.

Solution 13(c)

Regionalism, communalism, religious fanaticism, linguistic difference and now terrorism are the main forces that are a threat to national integration. For a citizen, country always comes first.

Solution 13(d)

Various detrimental elements are present in our society jeopardising national integration. These must be curbed for co-existence. High regional aspirations that may break the country into multiple small states should be controlled. Communalism shall be dealt with, in order to avoid clashes between various communities. No community should be placed above the nation. Lingual preferences should be peacefully dealt with so that no excessive bias or favour for any one language brings about agitation in the country. Religious fanaticism is another dangerous force that often leads to violence, not only in India, but all over the world. India is a secular country, but that hasn't solved all problems and it is time to do so now.

Solution 13(f)

Internal freedom means a mind free of selfish ego and aware of basic values and humanity in general; a conscience always awakened and strong, and love and true spirit in the core of heart. Such a free mind remains open to other cultures, religions and languages and will easily accept different people of the country. Exercise of power and authority may be successful temporarily, but fails in the long run. A free mind remains open to other cultures, religions and languages and will easily accept different people of the country.

Solution 14

Column A

Column B

Foster

Encourage the development of

Pernicious

Having a harmful effect

Integration

The act of accepting someone as a part of a group

Fanaticism

Excessive enthusiasm for an extreme political or religious cause

Solidarity

Agreement and support resulting from shared interests, feelings or opinions

Chapter - Exercise

Solution