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Class 10 NCERT Solutions Economics Chapter 1 - Development

Development Exercise 16

Solution 1

iv. All of the above

Solution 2

(ii) Sri Lanka

Solution 3

(iv) Rs 6000

Solution 4

World Bank uses the per capita income of the country as the principal criterion for classifying the countries as rich or poor. Per capita income is the average income of the people of a country in a given year. 

This criterion of classification has number of limitations. They are

i. World Bank does not give equal importance to other factors such as literacy rates and general health standards of the people which plays an important role in defining the quality of life.

ii. The per capita income does not reflect information about the unequal distribution of income among the people

iii. Classification by income does not necessarily display the development status because economies in one group do not experience similar level of development.

Solution 5

The criterion used by World Bank is different from UNDP. It is because the World Bank measures the development based only on per capita income, while the UNDP’s Human Development Report measures the development in terms of per capita income, literacy rates and general health standards of the people. 

Solution 6

To classify the countries only based on their total income would not be appropriate as different countries have different populations. Hence, we use averages. However, calculations based on average income have its own limitation because it does not tell us whether there is equal or unequal distribution of income in a country.

For example, there are two countries X and Y with five citizens each. Following table tells us about the income of these citizens.



Citizen A (Monthly income in Rs)

Citizen B (Monthly income in Rs)

Citizen C (Monthly income in Rs)

Citizen D (Monthly income in Rs)

Average Income






Rs. 6,000






Rs. 3000


In the above example, the average income of country X and Y is Rs 6000 and Rs 3,000 respectively. But we can see that while the average income of country X is the double of country Y, there is more disparity of income in country X than in country Y. 

Solution 7

Yes, I agree that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. We can understand this fact with the help of the statistics of two states, Kerala and Punjab. The per capita income of Punjab (Rs 26,000) is higher than Kerala (Rs 22,800). However, the infant mortality rate (49) and literacy rate (70%) in Punjab are much lower than Kerala (infant mortality rate-11 and literacy rate-91%).

The above data clearly shows that per capita income alone cannot be used for measuring the development of a nation or a state.

Solution 8

While fire wood is the main source of energy in rural India, coal, petroleum and natural gas are used extensively for the production of energy. These sources are non-renewable resources i.e.  they are exhaustible.

In about fifty years of time, we can hope to see various new renewable resources of energy being used on a much larger scale than they are used now. Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy and bio-gas made from the cow dung can be used extensively in future. Besides being renewable resources (non exhaustible), these are also environment friendly. a nation or a state.

Solution 9

Sustainable development means the judicious use of natural resources in such a way that they not only fulfill the needs of the present generation but also of the future generations. Sustainable development is required for the future growth and development of the countries. Development in an uncontrolled manner will not only lead to fast depletion of resources but will also result in stagnation of economies of the world. Sustainable development ensures stable and regular development of a country’s economy. 

Development Exercise 17

Solution 10

This famous quote of Mahatma Gandhi tells us that Earth has plenty of resources to satisfy the needs and basic requirements of the people but it does not have resources to meet the greed of even one person. While the basic necessities of human race can be fulfilled by nature, the unlimited exploitation of resources on the pretext of rapid development and the satisfaction of unlimited wants will lead to the destruction of resources.

Sustainable development is the key to the stable growth of economy.  It will not only lead to the development of the present economy but will also lead to its development in the future.

Solution 11

Various kinds of environmental degradations are taking place today. Air pollution caused because of vehicles and industries, water pollution caused because of industrial effluents and human activities and land degradation because of mining, deforestation, and building of residential apartments, highways and for making furnitures have collectively led to environmental degradation.   e expectancy at birth. Pakistan occupies the lowest position in the gross enrolment for all the three categories.

Solution 12

Sri Lanka tops all the four categories for the highest per capita income, life expectancy, literacy rate and gross enrolment ratio. It also has the highest HDI rank among the given countries.  Bangladesh is at the bottom for the category of literacy rate (41%). Nepal is at the bottom in terms of the HDI rank of the selected countries. Myanmar is at the bottom for the categories of per capita income and life expectancy at birth. Pakistan occupies the lowest position in the gross enrolment for all the three categories.

Solution 13

(i)                The nutritional level of the people of Kerala is higher than the people of Madhya Pradesh.

(ii)                Around 40% of the population in India is undernourished though it is argued that there is enough food in the country. It is because of the following reasons:

  1. Corrupt practices in the distribution of food grains through Public Distribution System (PDS).
  2. Lack of proper supply chains for distributing food grains among the poor people.
  3. Rotting of food grains in the store houses owned by the government.
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