NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 - Popular Struggles and Movements
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Chapter 5 - Popular Struggles and Movements Exercise 69
Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in the following ways:
- They gain the support and confidence of the public by undertaking actions such as filing petitions, starting information campaigns and organising meetings. The attention given by the media to these demonstrations also helps them to influence the larger public.
- The pressure groups and movements hold strikes and by disrupting the government's programmes, they force the government to look into their demands.
- Many wealthy business groups influence the politics through lobbying.
There have been various forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties. These are:
- Many a times, pressure groups are formed or led by the political leaders. For example, most student associations are affiliated to political parties.
- There have been instances where political parties were born as a result of these movements. For example, the DMK party in Tamil Nadu was formed in 1949 as a result of social movement.
- The negotiations and dialogues also take place between the political parties and pressure groups regarding various social and political issues.
The pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government as they strengthen democracy in the following ways:
- The government may come under the influence of the rich and powerful section of the society. Under such circumstances, the pressure groups may step in and can influence the government to frame policies for the interest of the larger section of the society.
- They highlight the concerns and anxieties of the weaker sections of the society and ensure they are noted by the government.
- When the government comes under the influence of any sectarian group, the other group may counteract it. This will make the government listen to all sections of the society and make laws that are best for the community and country.
Pressure groups are organisations that aim to influence the policies and programmes of the government through campaigns, protests and demonstrations. Pressure groups are formed when people having the same interests and opinions and share the same platform to achieve a common goal. BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation) and FEDECOR, which protests against the privatisation of water in Bolivia, are some examples of pressure groups.
People belonging to pressure groups have same interests and opinions. They come together on a common platform to achieve a common goal.
Members of political parties may not share the same interests and opinions. The opinion of the members of the same party may largely differ.
The aim of the pressure group is not to capture power or form the government.
The aim of a political party is to contest elections and to form the government.
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.
Chapter 5 - Popular Struggles and Movements Exercise 70
(b) A and B
Mewat is an example which shows how the demand of people took the shape of a movement. People of Mewat wanted it to become a separate district. Initially, their demand was not heeded by any political party. It was after two organisations- Mewat Educational and Social Organisation and Mewat Saksharta Samiti raised the issue, which were later supported by Mewat Vikas Sabha, that the movement gained momentum. Many public campaigns drawing the attention of the people towards their demands were started out by these organisations. Due to the success of the movement, both the parties- Indian National Congress and the National Lok Dal supported the movement. As a result, Mewat became a separate district.
This shows that a movement supported by masses and various organisations can force the political parties and government to support their issues.
Another long drawn movement was the demand for the separate state- the formation of Telangana from Andhra Pradesh. The Telangana movement was supported by many organisations and political parties. Ultimately the bill presented in the Parliament and has been passed to this effect by the government. Telangana, now is the 29th state of India.
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