NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 10 Civics chapter 3 - Democracy and Diversity

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Chapter 3 - Democracy and Diversity Excercise 37

Solution 1

The three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions are listed below:

The way people perceive their identities: Social divisions may take place if people demand a special recognition to their identities. However, if people perceive their identities as a part of a nation as a whole, then people belonging to different religions, traditions and customs can live peacefully in a country. For example, if we perceive ourselves first as Indians, rather than belonging to a religion or caste, then social divisions may not exist.  

Leadership provided by the political leaders: The role played by political leaders and leadership provided by them play a significant part in creating or filling the social divisions. For example, in Sri Lanka, the special status given to the Sinhalese community is at the expense of the Tamil community which created the rift between the two communities.  

The reaction of the government to the demands of various groups: The chances of social division are minimised if the government gives equal representation to all the major and minor groups in the society and powers are shared among them. However, if the government unequally share the powers among various groups, then the national unity and integrity of the country gets threatened.

Solution 2

When social differences of the two communities overlap, social divisions are created. It is when social differences overlap and become acute, people start believing that they belong to different communities. For example, in India, the people belonging to lower castes or the 'dalits' are not only poor and landless but they also face discrimination, inequalities and injustice in the society. This results in social division.

Solution 3

It is generally assumed that social divisions along with politics can threaten the unity of a nation. This can be true in some cases. In democracy, many political parties contest for power. Thus, they may exploit social divisions that exist in the society for gaining their own aims. This may lead to violent protests or even disintegration of a nation. For example, in Sri Lanka, Acts were passed by the government which gave preferential treatment to the Sinhala community over the Tamilian population. There were a series of protests staged by the Tamils in Sri Lanka. Finally, this conflict resulted in causing a Civil War in Sri Lanka, in which millions of people lost their lives.

However, the combination of social division and politics does not always lead to fractions in the society. Political leaders after being elected to power may formulate beneficial policies for the disadvantaged section of the society. At times, many parties in a democracy represent only certain section of people but this always does not lead to causing a fraction in the country.

Solution 4

Overlapping, crosscutting

Chapter 3 - Democracy and Diversity Excercise 38

Solution 1

(d) Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.

Solution 2

(b)  A and B 

Solution 3

(a) D, B, C, A 

Solution 4

(c) Yugoslavia

Solution 5

Martin Luther Jr. was an American activist and a leader of the Civil Rights Movement in America. He is referring to the policy of racism that existed in America. The blacks in America were discriminated by the whites. The children of the black population could not take admissions in prestigious schools. Coloured population were given unequal treatment and on several occasions and even the judiciary of the country gave biased decisions.

Martin Luther is anxious about the future of coloured people and their children in America. He aspired to ensure the country became free of any racial discrimination and religious discrimination. He want that the principle of equality to be established in society where people are not judged on the basis of the colour of their skin.

Yes, we see a relationship between this speech and the incident in Mexico Olympics. In both incidents, African-Americans were discriminated against.