Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process,
simple distillation, all the hot vapors produced are immediately channeled into a condenser which cools and condenses the vapors. Therefore, the distillate will not be pure - its composition will be identical to the composition of the vapors at the given temperature and pressure, and can be computed from Raoult's law
fractional distillation must be used in order to separate the components well by repeated vaporization-condensation cycles within a packed fractionating column.As the solution to be purified is heated, its vapors rise to the fractionating column. As it rises, it cools, condensing on the condenser walls and the surfaces of the packing material. Here, the condensate continues to be heated by the rising hot vapors; it vaporizes once more
team distillation is a method for distilling compounds which are heat-sensitive. This process involves using bubbling steam through a heated mixture of the raw material. By Raoult's law, some of the target compound will vaporize (in accordance with its partial pressure). The vapor mixture is cooled and condensed, usually yielding a layer of oil and a layer of water.