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how to write  reported speech , formal letter , and direct , i direct speech

Asked by Nikhil 24th February 2015, 6:07 PM
Answered by Expert

Hi Nikhil,

There two ways to convey a message of a person, or the words spoken by a person to others. They are called:

Direct speech and

Indirect speech (or reported speech)


When a direct quote is reported in the third person it is referred to as reported speech.


For Example:

Direct Speech- She said, "The man is coming to visit us today."

Indirect/ Reported Speech- She said that the man was coming to visit them today.


Rules for changing direct speech to in direct speech

1.         When the main verb in the direct speech is in the present tense, the verbs will be converted to their corresponding past tenses in their reported forms.

(a)        Simple Present Tense - to - Simple Past Tense

Direct: Suhail said, "I want to learn photography." (Simple present)

Indirect: Suhail said that he wanted to learn photograph. (Simple past)


(b)       Present Continuous Tense - to -Past Continuous Tense

Direct: Deepti asked, "Who is coming for the movie?" (Present continuous)

Indirect: Deepti asked who was coming for the movie. (Present continuous)


(c)        Present Perfect Tense - to -Past Perfect Tense

Direct: Jyoti said, "I have sealed the envelopes." (Present perfect)

Indirect: Jyoti said that she had sealed the envelopes. (Present perfect)



2.         When the main verb in the direct speech is in the future tense, its reported form has the following transformation:

Shall - to - should

Direct: "I shall meet Mr. Johnson tomorrow," said Manjeet. (Future)

Indirect: Manjeet said that he should meet Mr. Johnson tomorrow. (Future)


Will -- to - would/should

Direct: Sunita said, "I will bake a cake for you." (Future)

Indirect: Sunita said that she would bake a cake for me. (Future)


3.         When the main verb in the direct speech is in the simple past tense, the verb will be converted to past perfect tense in the reported form.

Direct: Mahesh said, "The cat went missing in the night." (Simple Past)

Indirect: Mahesh said that the cat had gone missing in the night. (Past Perfect)

Formal Letter


  • When you know the name of the person the letter is addressed to then the Complimentary Ending should be ‘Yours sincerely’.
  • When the name of the recipient is not known, the complimentary ending should be ‘Yours faithfully’.


Format for formal letter


Sender’s Address



Date: ______________


Salutation, (Eg: Dear …,)

Recipient’s Name & Address






Subject: One short sentence stating the purpose of the letter.


Introduction: Begin by introducing yourself and the purpose of writing the letter.


Body Paragraph: Explain the situation in detail listing factual information needed to validate your point.


Conclusion: End the letter by restating your request or an assurance, whichever is the case.


Thanking you.



Complimentary Ending (Eg: Yours sincerely / faithfully)

Sender’s Signature

Sender’s Name


Answered by Expert 24th February 2015, 6:15 PM
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