CBSE Class 10 Chemistry Metals and Non Metals
Physical Properties of Metals and Non-MetalsMetals are electropositive in nature. They are lustrous, malleable, ductile and good conductors of heat and electricity.
The elements that lack the properties of metals are said to have nonmetallic properties and are therefore called non-metals.
Chemical Properties of MetalsMetals form basic oxides, react with water and dilute acids to form Hydrogen gas.
Non-metals form acidic oxides, do not react with water and dilute acids to form Hydrogen gas.
Metals are electropositive in nature, while non-metals are electronegative in nature.
Metals in NatureThe natural substances in which metals are found in earth's crust are called minerals.
The minerals from which metals can be profitably extracted are called ores. Corrosion is the eating away of metals by the action of air, water, acids present on its surface.
An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or metals and non metals in a fixed proportion.
MetallurgyMetals low in reactivity series are obtained by simply heating.
Metals in the middle of reactivity series are first converted into oxides either by calcination or roasting. The oxides of these metals are reduced with the help of coke as a reducing agent.
Electrolytic reductions of ores are used to obtain metals high up in reactivity series. Impure metal can be purified by electrolytic refining.
Electrovalent Bonding of MetalsElectrovalent bond is a type of chemical bond that can often form between metal and non-metal ions through electrostatic attraction.
Ionic compounds are crystalline and thermally stable. They have high density, high melting and boiling point. They are also soluble in polar solvent and are good conductors of electricity in molten or solution state.