Question
Sat November 26, 2011 By: Yashasvi Narula
 

please tell me all the properties of halogens and each with example?

Expert Reply
Mon November 28, 2011

The halogen family consists of fluorine, bromine, chlorine, iodine and astatine.

Elements of the Family

Elements

Electronic Configuration (ns2np5)

9F

[He]2s22p5

17Cl

[Ne]3s23p5

35Br

[Ar]3d104s25p5

53I

[Kr]4d105s25p5

85At

[Xe]4f145d10

 

Fluorine is the most reactive of all the elements. It has the highest electronegativity value on the periodic table. Because of this, it proved extremely difficult to isolate.

A pale green gas of low density, fluorine can combine with all elements except some of the noble gases. Even water will burn in the presence of this highly reactive substance. Fluorine is also highly toxic, and can cause severe burns on contact, yet it also exists in harmless compounds, primarily in the mineral known as fluorspar, or calcium fluoride. The latter gives off a fluorescent light (fluorescence is the term for a type of light not accompanied by heat), and fluorine was named for the mineral that is one of its principal "hosts".

Fluorine has been known to form compounds with rare gases, including xenon, radon, and krypton. 

Chlorine

Chlorine is a very active element. It combines with all elements except the noble gases. The noble gases are the elements that make up Group 18 (VIIIA) of the periodic table. The reaction between chlorine and other elements can often be vigorous. For example, chlorine reacts explosively with hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride: 
Chlorine does not burn but, like oxygen, it helps other substances bum. Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent (a chemical substance that gives up or takes on electrons from another substance).

Bromine is a very reactive element. While it is less reactive than fluorine or chlorine, it is more reactive than iodine. It reacts with many metals, sometimes very vigorously. For instance, with potassium, it reacts explosively. Bromine even combines with relatively unreactive metals, such as platinum and palladium.

 

Iodine, I2 is not reactive towards with oxygen, O2, or nitrogen, N2.

Iodine, I2, reacts with water to produce hypoiodite, OI-. The position of the equilibrium depends very much upon the pH of the solution.

In the graphic on the left, iodine element reacts with zinc metal to form zinc iodide. The reaction is so exothermic that part of the iodine element solid is vaporized to iodine violet gas.

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