Sat July 30, 2011 By:

what is electronic counter? how rf voltage and power can be measured?

Expert Reply
Thu August 04, 2011

In electronics, counters can be implemented quite easily using register-type circuits such as the flip-flop, and a wide variety of classifications exist:

Asynchronous (ripple) counter – changing state bits are used as clocks to subsequent state flip-flops
Synchronous counter – all state bits change under control of a single clock
Decade counter – counts through ten states per stage
Up/down counter – counts both up and down, under command of a control input
Ring counter – formed by a shift register with feedback connection in a ring
Johnson counter – a twisted ring counter
Cascaded counter
Each is useful for different applications. Usually, counter circuits are digital in nature, and count in natural binary. Many types of counter circuits are available as digital building blocks, for example a number of chips in the 4000 series implement different counters.

Occasionally there are advantages to using a counting sequence other than the natural binary sequence—such as the binary coded decimal counter, a linear feedback shift register counter, or a Gray-code counter.

Counters are useful for digital clocks and timers, and in oven timers, VCR clocks, etc.

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