Maharashtra - X - Biology
EXPLAIN CLONING IN ANIMALS.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DIPLOID AND HAPLOID GAMETES
Cloning is the process of obtaining a organism that is genotypically and phenotypically identically to the parent organism.
In order to clone an animal, a cell from the desired organism that is to be cloned called as the donor organism is extracted. Also a mature egg cell is extracted from a surrogate mother and the nucleus from the egg cell is removed. The cell from the donor organism is then introduced into the egg cell and the egg cell is then allowed to develop in a suitable culture medium until it forms an embryo.
This embryo is then introduced into the surrogate mother and the surrogate mother is allowed undergo normal pregnancy. The organism that is born through such a pregnancy is a clone of the donor organism.
Gametes are always haploid and never diploid. This is because diploid organisms have two sets of chromosomes, during the time of gamete formation, the gametes only receive one set of the chromosome.
During reproduction the haploid gametes fuse together to form a diploid organism. If the gametes remain diploid, the new organism will have 4 sets of chromosomes, two from each gamete and thus result into complications. Thus to maintain the number of chromosomes same in the progeny and throughout generations, gametes formed are always haploid.
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