Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Physics Chapter Unit - 3 - Sound
Frank Textbook Solutions Chapter Unit - 3 - Sound
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Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Physics Chapter Unit - 3 - Sound Page/Excercise 162
The sound heard after reflection from a rigid obstacle (such as cliff, a hillside, a wall of a building, edge of a forest etc.), is called an echo.
Conditions necessary for echo formation are:
1. The minimum distance between the source of sound and its reflector should be 17 m.
2. Reflected sound should reach the person atleast 0.1 second after the original sound is heard.
The audience in the auditorium as act obstructions in the path of sound waves; so they sound waves are not reflected much less and hence the echoes usually decrease.
(a) Bats can produce and detect the sound of very high frequency. The bats fly with speed much lower than the speed of sound. The sounds produced by flying bats get reflected from any obstacle in front of it. By hearing the echoes, bats come to know where the obstacles are, even in the dark. So, they can fly safely without colliding with the obstacles. This process of detecting obstacles is called sound ranging.
(b) Dolphins detect their enemies and small fishes by emitting ultrasonic waves in all directions and then hearing their reflected sound i.e. echo. Dolphins can judge the nature of obstacles or of small fish by hearing the echo and catch their prey.
(a) Frequency: Frequency of a vibrating body is defined as the number of vibrations completed by the body in one second.
(b) Loudness: Loudness is the property by virtue of which a loud sound can be distinguished from a faint one, both having the same pitch and quality. The loudness of a sound depends on the amplitude (or intensity) of the wave.
(c) Pitch: The 'pitch' of a note is determined solely by its frequency. The pitch in fact, is a subjective sensation in the ear depending only upon the frequency of the musical note. The relation between pitch and frequency is linear to a very close approximation.
(d) Quality of a musical note: quality of a sound is that characteristic which distinguishes the two sounds of the same loudness and same pitch, but emitted by two different instruments. It depends on the waveform.
Wave- velocity: It is the velocity with which a wave propagates in a particular medium.
Wavelength: The wavelength is the distance between two successive crests or two successive troughs on a transverse wave.
It is also equal to the distance between any two points where the particles are passing through their respective mean positions in the same direction.
It is also the distance between two successive compressions or two successive rarefactions on a longitudinal wave.
Wave-velocity = wavelength x frequency
Pitch of a musical noted depends on its wavelength or frequency. Higher the frequency, higher the pitch.
Loudness depends upon the amplitude of the wave. Loudness is directly proportional to the square of amplitude.
Quality of a musical depends on the wave form.
Frequency of vibrations of a stretched string depends upon:
1. Frequency of the fundamental note of a stretched string is inversely proportional to the length of the vibrating string.
2. Frequency is directly proportional to the square root of the tension of the string.
3. Frequency is inversely proportional to the square root of linear density. That is, mass per unit length of the material of the string. Thinner is the wire, higher is the frequency.
When the frequency of the forced vibration is equal to the natural frequency of a body nearby or an integer multiple of it then the body vibrates with a large amplitude. This phenomenon is called resonance.
E.g.1 all stringed instruments are provided with sound box (or sound chamber). This box is so constructed that the column of of air inside it, has a natural frequency which is the same as that of the strings stretched on it, so that when the strings are made to vibrate, the air column inside the box is set to forced vibrations. Since the sound box has a large area, it sets a large volume of air into vibration of the same frequency as that of the string. So, due to resonance, a loud sound is produced.
E.g.2 Radio and TV receivers have electronic circuits which produce electrical vibrations, the frequency of which can be changed by changing the values of the electrical components of that circuit. When we want to tune a radio or TV receiver, we merely adjust the values of the electronic components to produce vibrations of frequency equal to that of the incoming radio waves which we want to receive. When the two frequencies match, due to resonance, the energy or signal of that particular frequency is received from the incoming waves. The signal is then amplified in the receiver set.
Guitar produces notes using vibrating string.
To produce notes with different pitches, strings of different thicknesses are plucked. When a string of greater thickness is plucked, a note with higher pitch is produced and vice-versa.
To produce the notes of different loudness, all stringed instruments are provided with hollow sound box which contains air. In these instruments vibrations are produced in the sound box when the strings on it are made to vibrate by plucking, are forced vibrations. Larger the surface area of the air in the sound box, louder will be the sound produced.
Flute produces notes using a vibrating column of air.
In a flute, the notes of different frequencies or pitch are produced by changing the effective length of the air column when different holes in it are closed.
In a flute, the notes of different loudness can be produced by using flutes of different diameters. A flute with larger diameter shall have more air enclosed in it and hence the sound produced by it shall be louder.
Piano produces notes using a vibration of any other body.
When we strike the keys of piano, strings of different thickness are set in vibration at their natural frequencies; hence sound of higher pitch can be produced by striking the string of greater thickness.
A piano's wires are attached to a sounding board with help of which sound of different loudness can be produced. The vibrating wire makes the board vibrate, which makes the sound louder.
When a nail is hammered into a piece of wood, its length outside wood gradually decreases. As the length decreases, the frequency of vibrations increases and hence the pitch being directly proportional to the frequency also increases
When the windows rattle, at that moment, its natural frequency corresponds with the frequency with which the low notes of a pipe organ are sounded. Thus, resonance takes place which makes the windows to vibrate violently.
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Physics Chapter Unit - 3 - Sound Page/Excercise 163
Sound of level below 120 dB is safe for our ears.
The sound level above 120 dB causes noise pollution.
The 'pitch' of a note is determined solely by its frequency. The pitch in fact, is a subjective sensation in the ear depending only upon the frequency of the musical note. The relation between pitch and frequency is linear to a very close approximation.
Subjective property of sound related to its frequency is 'pitch'.
It is possible to recognize a person by his voice without seeing him because the vibrations produced by the vocal chord of each person have a characteristic waveform which is different for different persons.
The loudness of a sound wave is determined by its amplitude; it is proportional to the square of the amplitude. Therefore, the louder sound corresponds to the wave of larger amplitude.
When the strings are made to vibrate by plucking, the vibrations get transferred to the hollow sound box. As a result, the large volume of air in the box is also set into vibration to produce a loud sound. Larger the surface area of the air in the sound box, louder will be the sound produced.
The intensity of a sound wave at any point of the medium is measured as the amount of sound energy passing per second normally through unit area at that point.
Its unit is microwatt per metre2.
Loudness of a sound (L) and its intensity (I) are related as:
L = k log (I/Io),
Here, I/Io is the intensity level of the sound or the ratio between its intensity I and the threshold intensity Io, and k is the constant of proportionality depending upon the unit chosen.
(a) If frequency of a musical sound is increased, its pitch will increase.
(b) If amplitude of a musical sound is increased, its loudness will also increase.
Loudness depends on the energy conveyed by the wave near the eardrum of a listener. Loudness being a sensation also depends upon the sensitivity of the ears of listener. Thus, loudness of a sound of given intensity may differ from listener to listener.
Further, two sounds of the same intensity, but of different frequencies may differ in loudness even to the same listener because the sensitivity of the ears is different for different frequencies. Thus loudness is a subjective quantity, while intensity, being a measurable quantity, is an objective quantity for a sound wave.
The loudness of a sound heard by a listener depends upon:
1. Loudness is directly proportional to the square of the amplitude.
2. Loudness varies inversely as the square of distance.
3. Loudness is directly proportional to the surface area of a vibrating body.
Unit used to measure sound level is decibel (dB).
Sound from two musical instruments of same pitch and same loudness can be distinguished by their different quality or timbre. The quality of a musical sound depends on the wave form and the wave form of an instrument depends on the presence of the subsidiary vibrations along with the principal vibrations and the relative amplitudes of the various subsidiary vibrations in relation to the principal vibration.
Quality of sound of the same pitch differs when produced by different instruments because of the difference in their waveforms. Different instrument emit different subsidiary notes due to the presence of mixture of subsidiary vibrations along with the principal vibration. The subsidiary vibrations present in the musical note make the wave form complex and thus we can easily distinguish between the sound so different instruments, though they may be of same pitch.
The number, and nature of harmonics and overtones present, affects the quality of sound. The different combinations of number and nature of harmonics and overtones present in the 'notes' gives these different wave patterns.
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