Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia
Frank Textbook Solutions Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia
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Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 219
Ammonia is found both in free state and in combined state. In free state, it is formed in traces amount by decaying urine and other organic matter.
In combined state, ammonia is found as ammonium salts mainly as ammonium chloride and ammonium sulphate.
(a) (i) Liquid ammonia - Compressed ammonia gas at 6 atmospheric pressure. Chemical formula - NH3
(ii) Liquor ammonia - It is saturated solution of ammonia in water. It is very dilute solution of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH).
(b) A saturated solution of ammonia in water is called liquor ammonia Fortis.
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 220
(i) Liquid ammonia is used as refrigerant as:
(a) It is highly volatile
(b) It has high specific latent heat of vaporization. 1 mole (17g) of liquid ammonia vaporises by absorbing 5.7 kcals of heat from the surroundings, which is there by cooled.
(c) It easily liquefies under pressure at room temperature.
(ii) Ammonia emulsifies fats and grease. Thus it is used to clean oils, fats and body grease etc. from clothes.
(iii) Liquid hydrogen is dangerous to transport as it is highly combustible. Thus, hydrogen is converted to liquid ammonia and transported in cylinders. Later it is catalytically converted to hydrogen.
Key: Uses of ammonia
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 221
(a) (i) Use of Ammonium Chloride
Used in Leclanche cell and dry cell
(ii) Use of Ammonium Sulphate
Used as a fertilizer
(iii)use of Ammonium nitrate
Used in fireworks
(i) Use of Ammonium Carbonate
Used in baking powder
(b) Test of ammonia and ammonium ions:
(i) Ammonia gas has a characteristic pungent smell
(ii) A glass rod dipped in concentrated hydrochloric acid and is introduced into the gas produces thick white fumes of ammonium chloride.
A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound which contains carbon, chlorine and fluorine produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane.
Pure ammonia gas is highly toxic to humans and would pose a threat if the refrigerator were to leak. Hence, CFCs became popular as a substitute of ammonia as a refrigerant.
(i) Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CF3CHCl2)
(ii) Hyrofluorocarbon (HFC)
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 222
(i) Slacked lime
(ii) NCl3, HCl
(iv) Cu and N2
(v) Haber's process
(vi) High heat of vaporisation
(vii) To increase the activity of the catalyst
Ammonia is highly soluble gas in water and so cannot be collected over water.
Ammonia is the odd one out.
Ammonia forms weakly basic solution when dissolved in water.
The others give acidic solution when dissolved in water.
(i) Ammonia is used in the manufacture of fertilisers such as ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, etc.
(ii) It is used in the industrial preparation of nitric acid by Ostwald's process.
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 223
The cation is Cu2+ ion. Solution B is copper sulphate. It is bright blue in colour.
Three ways to identify ammonia gas:
1. It is a pungent smell gas.
2. It gives white precipitate when bubbles through a solution of lead nitrate.
3. It gives a brown colour or precipitate when treated with Nessler's reagent.
This reaction shows that ammonia is a reducing agent.
This process is called as Ostwald's Process .The catalyst used is platinum.
During laboratory preparation of ammonia, it is passed through a drying tower containing quicklime (calcium oxide).
Ammonia is collected in an inverted dry gas jar by the downward displacement of air.
Ammonia forms ammonium hydroxide and turns red litmus blue as it is alkaline in nature.
Haber's process is used in industrial preparation of ammonia.
Gaseous inputs in Haber's process are dry nitrogen and dry hydrogen gas. They are mixed in the ratio of 1:3 by volume.
The following conditions favour maximum yield of ammonia:
(a) Low temperature
(b) High pressure
(c) Use of catalyst
The gases after reaction pass through condensing pipes of cooling chamber where ammonia gets liquefied and is collected in receiver.
Ammonia can also be collected by downward displacement of air.
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 224
Dry ammonia are neutral to litmus. An aqueous solution of ammonia turns red litmus blue stating that it is basic in nature.
Ammonium salts are used as fertilizers in fields.
Aqueous solution is acidic in nature due to presence of hydrogen ion.
Aqueous solution of ammonia is weakly basic in nature due to presence of hydroxyl ion.
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 225
Ammonia is collected by downward displacement of air.
Quick lime (calcium oxide) is used as a drying agent for ammonia.
By the pungent smell of ammonia gas.
Ammonia is highly soluble in water and so it is not collected over water.
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 226
(c) Magnesium nitride
(i) Ammonia burns with a yellowish flame. It produces water vapour and nitrogen.
(ii) When ammonium hydroxide is brought near the mouth of concentrated hydrochloric acid, it produces dense white fumes of ammonium chloride.
(i) Haber's process
(ii) 1 part of nitrogen and 3 parts of hydrogen
(iii) Finely divided iron (Fe)
(i) Ammonia and hydrogen chloride gas
(ii) High solubility of gases in water
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 227
(iii) By downward displacement of air
(v) Bring moist red litmus paper to the mouth of the inverted jar; it immediately turns blue.
Bring a glass rod dipped in hydrochloric acid to the
mouth of the inverted jar. If it produces dense white
fumes, then the jar is full of gas.
Name of the process
Equation for the catalyzed reaction
Finely divided iron (Fe)
(b) C + 4HNO3→ CO2 + 2H2O + 4NO2
(i) Hydroxyl (OH-) ion other than ammonium ion
(ii) Red litmus turns blue, methyl orange turns yellow and phenolphthalein turns pink.
(i) 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2→ CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2NH3
(ii) NH3 + 3Cl2→ NCl3 + 3HCl
(iii) 2NH3+H2SO4→ (NH4)2SO4
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 9 - A - Ammonia Page/Excercise 228
(i) 8NH3 + 3Cl2→ N2 + 6NH4Cl
(ii) 3PbO + 2NH3 →3Pb + 3H2O + N2
(i) Cation that does not form a precipitate with ammonium hydroxide but forms one with sodium hydroxide: Ca2+
(ii) A solid formed by a reaction of two gases, one of which is acidic and the other basic in nature: Salt
(i) 3CuO + 3NH3→ 3Cu + 3H2O + N2↑
(ii) 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 → CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑
Since ammonia is not a supporter of combustion, it extinguishes a burning splint and does not burn in air.
(i) A = NaHSO4 + HCl
B = upward displacement of air
(ii) C = Mg3N2 + H2O
D = quicklime
E = downward displacement of air
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