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Concise Biology Part II - Selina Solution for Class 10 Biology Chapter 10 - The Nervous System

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Selina Textbook Solutions Chapter 10 - The Nervous System

Selina Textbook Solutions are a perfect way to ace your examination with high marks. These Textbook Solutions are extremely helpful for solving difficult questions in the ICSE Class 10 Biology exam. Our Selina Textbook Solutions are written by our subject experts. Find all the answers to the Selina textbook questions of Chapter 10 - The Nervous System.

All solutions Selina textbook questions of Chapter 10 - The Nervous System are created in accordance with the latest ICSE syllabus. These free Textbook Solutions for ICSE Class 10 Selina Concise Biology will give you a deeper insight on the fundamentals in this chapter and will help you to score more marks in the final examination. ICSE Class 10 students can refer to these solutions while doing their homework and while studying and revising for the Biology exam. 

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Concise Biology Part II - Selina Solution for Class 10 Biology Chapter 10 - The Nervous System Page/Excercise 1

Solution A.1

(b) neurolemma

Solution A.2

(d) Pons - consciousness

Solution A.3

(b) Contains both sensory and motor fibres

Solution B.1

(a) Cerebrospinal fluid

(b) Synapse

(c) Cerebrum

(d) Hypothalamus

Solution B.2

(a) Stimulus: Receptor:: Impulse: Effectors

(b) Cerebrum: Diencephalon:: Cerebellum: Medulla oblongata

(c) Receptor: Sensory nerve:: Motor nerve: Effector

Solution B.3

(a) Sensory

(b) Maintaining posture and equilibrium

(c) Spinal cord

Solution C.1

(a) Corpus Callosum - It is located located in the forebrain. It connects two cerebral hemispheres and transfers information from one hemisphere to other.

(b) Central canal - It is located in centre of the spinal cord. It is in continuation with the cavities of the brain. It is filled with cerebrospinal fluid and acts as shock proof cushion. In addition, it also helps in exchange of materials with neurons.

Solution C.2

(a) False

(b) False

(c) True

(d) True

Solution C.3

(a)

Cerebrum

Cerebellum

The cerebrum controls all voluntary actions. It enables us to think, reason, plan and memorize.

The cerebellum on the other hand maintains balance of the body and coordinates muscular activity.

 

 

 

 

 

(b)

Sympathetic Nervous System

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for violent action against the abnormal condition.

Parasympathetic nervous system is concerned with re-establishing normal conditions after the violent act is over.

 

(c)

Sensory Nerve

Motor Nerve

Sensory nerve brings impulses from the receptors i.e. sense organs to the brain or spinal cord.

Motor nerve carries impulse from the brain or spinal cord to effector organs such as muscles or glands.

 

 

 

(d)

Medulla Oblongata

Cerebellum

Medulla oblongata controls the  activities of internal organs and many other involuntary actions

The cerebellum on the other hand maintains balance of the body and coordinates muscular activity.

 

(e)

Cerebrum

Spinal Cord

The grey matter containing cytons lies in the cortex (outer region) while the white matter containing axons lies in the medullary region (inner region).

The grey matter containing cytons lies in the medullary region i.e. inner side while the white matter containing axons lies in the cortex i.e. the outer region.

Solution C.4

(a) Cerebellum maintains balance of the body and coordinates muscular activity.

(b) Myelin sheath acts like an insulation and prevents mixing of impulses in the adjacent axons.

Solution C.5

(a) Synapse: It is a gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of the adjacent neuron. It transmits nerve impulse from one neuron to another neuron.

(b) Association Neuron: It interconnects sensory and motor neurons.

(c) Medullary sheath: It provides insulation and prevents mixing of impulses in the adjacent axons.

(d) Medulla Oblongata: It controls activities of internal organs such as peristalsis, breathing and many other involuntary actions.

(e) Cerebellum: It maintains balance of the body and coordinates muscular activity.

(f) Cerebrospinal Fluid: It acts like a cushion and protects the brain from shocks.

Solution C.6

(a) Motor nerve: It contains motor fibres which carry impulses generated by the association neuron (brain or spinal cord) to the effector organs. Example: A nerve which arises from the brain and ends in the eye muscles is a motor nerve. It helps in rotating the eye.

(b) Autonomic nervous system: It is a part of the peripheral nervous system. It consists of a pair of chains of nerves and ganglia on either side of the backbone. It controls the involuntary actions of the internal organs.

(c) Conditioned reflex: It develops during life time due to experience or learning. It is brought about by the condition which is totally different from initial stimulus. Example: Salivation just by the smell of food.

(d) Association neuron: It is located in the brain and the spinal cord. It acts as a connecting neuron and interconnects the sensory and motor neurons.

(e) Gray matter: The cerebral cortex contains cell bodies of the neuron and is greyish in colour. It is called gray matter. The grey matter has many folds (i.e. gyri) and grooves (i.e. sulci). They increase the surface area to accommodate more nerve cells. A higher number of convolutions leads to greater intelligence.

Solution C.7

(a) Stimulus --- receptor --- sensory neuron --- central nervous system --- motor neuron --- effector --- response

(b) Resting --- depolarization --- repolarization

(c) Dendrites --- Dendron --- perikaryon --- nucleus --- axon --- axon endings

(d) Cerebrum --- diencephalon --- mid-brain --- cerebellum --- pons --- medulla oblongata

Solution D.1

(a) Reflex action  is an autonomic, quick and involuntary action in the body brought about by a stimulus.

(b)

Example

Type of Reflex

(i) Sneezing

Simple

(ii) Blushing

Simple

(iii) Contraction of eye pupil

Simple

(iv) Lifting up a book

 

Conditioned

(v) Knitting without looking

Conditioned

(vi)  Sudden application of brakes of the cycle on sighting an obstacle in front

Conditioned

Solution D.2

The advantages of having a nervous system are as follows:

(a) Keeps us informed about the outside world through sense organs.

(b) Enables us to remember, think and reason out.

(c) Controls and harmonizes all voluntary muscular activities such as running, holding, writing

(d) Regulates involuntary activities such as breathing, beating of the heart without our thinking about them.

Solution D.3

The brain and the spinal cord lie in the skull and the vertebral column respectively. They have an important role to play because all bodily activities are controlled by them. A stimulus from any part of the body is always carried to the brain or spinal cord for the correct response. A response to a stimulus is also generated in the central nervous system. Therefore, the brain and the spinal cord are called the central nervous system.

Solution D.4

Reflex actions are involuntary actions which occur unknowingly. Voluntary actions on the other hand are performed consciously.

Picking up an apple and eating it is an example of voluntary action whereas withdrawal of hand on touching a hot object is an example of reflex action.

Reflex Action

Voluntary Action

Reflex actions are involuntary actions which occur unknowingly.

Voluntary actions on the other hand are performed consciously.

Commands originate in the spinal cord, autonomic nervous system and a few in the brain as well.

Commands originate in the brain.

Solution D.5

  

Myelinated Neuron

Solution D.6

 

Organ

Sympathetic System

Parasympathetic System

e.g. Lungs

Dilates bronchi and bronchioles

Constricts bronchi and bronchioles

1. Heart

Accelerates heartbeat

Retards heartbeat

2. Pupil

Dilates

Constricts

3. Salivary gland

Inhibits the secretion of saliva causing the drying of the mouth

Stimulates the release of saliva

 

Solution E.1

Salivation is an example of conditioned reflex that develops due to experience or learning. Saliva starts pouring when you chew or eat food. Therefore, this reflex will occur not just on the sight or smell of food. The brain actually needs to remember the taste of food. Boy B started salivating because he must have tasted that food prior unlike boy A.

Solution E.2

Situation

Organ/body part

Change/action

Part of autonomic nervous system involved

1. You have entered a dark room

Eye

Pupil dilates

Sympathetic

2. Your body is consuming lot of glucose while running a race

Liver

Glycogen is converted into glucose in liver

Sympathetic

3. You are chewing a tasty food

Salivary gland

Salivation increases

Parasympathetic

4. You are running a race

Adrenal gland

Release of adrenaline and noradrenaline increases

Sympathetic

5. You are retiring to bed for sleep

Heart

Heart rate slows down

Parasympathetic

6. You are shivering in intense cold

Body hairs

Hair raised

Sympathetic

Solution E.3

Fill in the following information in the diagram.

1 Central Nervous System

2 - Autonomic

3 - 12

4 - spinal

5 - 31

6 - dilates

7 - constricts

8 - liver

TopperLearning provides step-by-step solutions for each question in each chapter. Access Chapter 10 - The Nervous System  for ICSE Class 10 Biology free of cost. The solutions are provided by our subject matter experts. Refer to our solutions for the Selina Concise Biology textbook to revise the whole chapter and clear your fundamentals before the examination. By referring to the solutions for this chapter and the others, we hope that you are able to write your exams well.

Text Book Solutions

ICSE X - Biology

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