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Concise Biology Part II - Selina Solution for Class 10 Biology Chapter 14 - Human Evolution

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Selina Textbook Solutions Chapter 14 - Human Evolution

Selina Textbook Solutions are a perfect way to ace your examination with high marks. These Textbook Solutions are extremely helpful for solving difficult questions in the ICSE Class 10 Biology exam. Our Selina Textbook Solutions are written by our subject experts. Find all the answers to the Selina textbook questions of Chapter 14 - Human Evolution.

All solutions Selina textbook questions of Chapter 14 - Human Evolution are created in accordance with the latest ICSE syllabus. These free Textbook Solutions for ICSE Class 10 Selina Concise Biology will give you a deeper insight on the fundamentals in this chapter and will help you to score more marks in the final examination. ICSE Class 10 students can refer to these solutions while doing their homework and while studying and revising for the Biology exam. 

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Concise Biology Part II - Selina Solution for Class 10 Biology Chapter 14 - Human Evolution Page/Excercise 1

Solution A.1

(c) Lamarck

Solution A.2

(d) Darwin

Solution A.3

(b) Moth

Solution A.4

(a) Ramapithecus

Solution B.1

Neanderthal man and modern man exhibit different characteristics, and hence, they are considered two distinct species. Below are the characteristic differences between Neanderthal man and modern man:

Characteristics

Neanderthal man

Modern man

Locomotion

Absolute bipedalism

Bipedal locomotion

Head and forehead

Large head, broad, flat and sloping forehead

Upright head, skull on the top of the vertebral column, steep forehead

Brow ridges

Prominent brow ridges

Reduced brow ridges

Chin

No chin

Well developed and prominent chin

Hair on body

Less hair on the body

Prominent hair on limbs

Cranial capacity

1450 cm3

1450 to 1600 cm3

 

Solution B.2

Ancestral forms

Cranial capacities

(a) Australopithecus

450 to 600 cm3

(b) Homo habilis

680 to 735 cm3

(c) Homo erectus

800 to 1125 cm3

(d) Cro-magnon

1450 to 1600 cm3

(e) Homo sapiens sapiens

1450 to 1600 cm3

 

Solution B.3

(a) Use and disuse:

Parts of the body which are used extensively become larger and stronger, while those which are not used deteriorate.

 

(b) Inheritance of acquired characters:

An organism could pass its modifications to its offspring.

Solution B.4

Three vestigial organs found in humans are wisdom teeth, vermiform appendix and pinna.

Solution B.5

Biston betularia is a classical example of 'natural selection'.

Solution B.6

(a)The fossil history of humans is fragmentary.

(b)The first remarkable human fossil was that of Homo habilis.

(c)Evolution is an ever continuing process. 

Solution C.1

Charles Darwin proposed the idea of natural selection. Darwinism or Theory of Natural Selection is based on some facts:

(i) Overproduction:

  • All organisms have the capacity to reproduce at a very high rate.
  • However, organisms cannot survive by reproduction alone.
  • Due to lack of food and space, offspring soon begin to die.
  • Some are eaten by predators, while some get destroyed due to adverse environmental conditions.

(ii) Struggle for existence:

  • Overproduction of organisms results in a struggle for existence among organisms.
  • The struggle is to obtain food, space and mate.

 (iii) Variation:

  • Progeny of the same parents are not exactly alike. Such differences are known as variations. The variations may be harmful or advantageous.

(iv) Survival of fittest:

  • In the struggle for existence, organisms that develop new favourable characteristics will survive in the long run. This idea is called 'Survival of the fittest'.
  • Organisms which survive will transmit favourable characters to their offspring.
  • These characters get accumulated and give rise to new species.

 

Solution C.2

  • The best example is industrial melanism showing the effect of industrial pollution on the moth population on a nearby tree.
  • Before industrialisation, light-coloured lichen used to grow on trees and moth predators could not spot white moths easily, while dark moths were lesser in the moth population. However, due to industrial pollution, lichens could not grow on trees and it became difficult for predators to spot dark moths on the dark background of the stem bark, and thus, the population of white moths became less than that of dark moths.
  • This process is termed industrial melanism. Before industrialisation, white moths were better adapted towards nature, but after industrialisation, dark-coloured moths were more fit towards the changed environmental conditions.

Solution C.3

Australopithecus averaged about 120 cm tall, and the cranial capacity ranged from 450-600 cm3. It had a low forehead, protruding face, lack of chin and low brain capacity. Teeth resembled man because the dental arc was a smoothly rounded parabola, and a simian gap was absent which justifies a human ancestor.  

Solution C.4

Correct sequence through which modern man evolved:

1. Australopithecus

2. Homo habilis

3. Homo erectus

4. Neanderthal man

5. Cro-Magnon

6. Homo sapiens

Solution C.5

  • According to the theory of inheritance of acquired characters, 'the changes in structure or function of any organ acquired during the life-time of an individual in response to changes in the surrounding environment are inherited by offspring and keep on adding over a period of time'. 
  • This theory states that characters are acquired by animals in two ways:

- Effects of environment

- Use and disuse of body parts

  • For example, the long neck of giraffe is explained by Lamarck on the same principle. Giraffe, which lived in the dry and arid deserts of Africa, tried to reach the foliage high up on the trees to eat them as there was no vegetation on the ground. In the process, its neck and forelegs got stretched a bit and this was inherited by the next generation. Then, in the next generation, the same efforts continued. Gradually, through many successive generations, we got a giraffe having a long neck and long forelegs.

Solution C.6

Organs which are found in reduced or rudimentary condition and do not perform any function in the possessor are called vestigial organs or non-functional organs. They help in understanding the history of evolution and continuity of life.

 

1. Wisdom teeth: They are the last molars which appear last at the age of 17-20 years.

 

2. Vermiform appendix: It projects from the blind end of the caecum and is a functionless organ in humans. It is helpful in herbivorous mammals.

 

3. Pinna: It is the lobe-like part of the external ear which humans cannot move as in other mammals. As it is poorly developed, it is a vestigial organ.

TopperLearning provides step-by-step solutions for each question in each chapter. Access Chapter 14 - Human Evolution  for ICSE Class 10 Biology free of cost. The solutions are provided by our subject matter experts. Refer to our solutions for the Selina Concise Biology textbook to revise the whole chapter and clear your fundamentals before the examination. By referring to the solutions for this chapter and the others, we hope that you are able to write your exams well.

Text Book Solutions

ICSE X - Biology

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