NCERT Solution for Class 10 History Chapter 6 - Work, Life and Leisure
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NCERT Solution for Class 10 History Chapter 6 - Work, Life and Leisure Page/Excercise 150
Following are the reason why the population of London expanded from the middle of the 18th century:
- The most important reason behind the expansion was the large scale migration from the rural to urban areas. Following the enclosure of land in the countryside and adoption of new technologies of farming, many unemployed peasants began moving to London in search of work.
- Even though London did not have large factories then, it was known as a finishing centre. Its population increased because five major industries of the British economy - clothing, footwear, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing and stationary and precision products provided large scale employment for those looking for work, though at questionable standards of working conditions.
In 19th century, technological developments put women out of the industrial production process and compelled them to work as domestic servants. Others took in lodgers in their homes or undertook professions like tailoring, washing or match box making. By the 20th century there was a sea change in that women were employed in wartime industries and offices. They withdrew from the domestic service resultantly.
Factors leading to the change in the kind of work women were engaged in the 19th century to that of 20th century are as follows:
- Once women lost their jobs on a large scale due to technological advancements, conservative forces in the society rallied against the presence of women in public life. It was impressed upon constantly that the domestic sphere is the only place for women.
- However, in the 20th century, women moved from the domestic sphere to the public since men were engaged in wars and women were required in the work force in order to complete wartime production demands.
- A large urban population entails scarcity of space, hence drives the price of land, increasing the rate of rent.
- Historically, it led to construction of cheap and unsafe tenements. In 19th century London, landlords housed new tenants in places that were badly ventilated and lacked sanitation facilities.
- In Bombay, such processes led to the growth of 'chawls' - multistoreyed structures owned by private landlords, meant for migrants. Such structures often lacked proper sanitation facilities or even private toilets.
- A large urban population often meant many possibilities of social tension and disorder. This automatically entailed an increase in the power and authority of the police personnel.
- The pressures of the urban life often proved too much for a section of population that couldn't find work or was living in a hostile environment. Such sections turned to crime for money. Automatically, the task of the police superintendent becomes harder.
- Often, there was a palpating fear of mass riots. In 1886, London came to a standstill when a mass of the urban poor exploded in a riot, demanding relief from terrible conditions of poverty. The marches had to be dispersed by the police. A similar riot occurred in 1887 and was brutally suppressed by the police in what came to be known as the Bloody Sunday of November 1887.
- For a leader of a political party, a large urban population meant an opportunity to expand his/her political base.
- It also increases the accountability of the politician as he/she is now responsible for the welfare of a larger number of citizens.
- It also makes possible the mobilizations of large swathes of population for political causes. An example of this is the London dockworkers strike which lasted for 12 days without an incident.
- Well off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the 19th century because:
- The migrant workers often lived in unsafe and unhealthy tenements erected by individual landowners. This was seen as a serious threat to public health as diseases spread fast in those days.
- There were worries of fire hazards. Considering that London had been burnt to ashes several times through history, this concern was understandable.
- There was fear of a mass revolution after the Russian Revolution of 1917. Workers' mass housing schemes were an attempt to appease the poor and arrest any thoughts towards an insurrection.
- A considerable number of Bombay films were about the lives of the migrants because:
- Most of the professionals of the Bombay film industry were themselves migrants from distant parts of India and came from cities like Lahore, Calcutta, etc.
- They reflected the social reality and aspirations of their native regions. And this naturally got reflected in their artistic expression.
- Following are the reasons behind a major expansion of Bombay's population in the mid 19th century.
- In the 19th century, Bombay's character changed. From a mere export outlet for cotton textiles from Gujarat, it became a major trading centre of raw materials like cotton and opium. Therefore large communities of traders, bankers, artisans and shopkeepers gradually settled down in Bombay.
- Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819 and hence became an important centre of administration.
- The establishment of cotton textile mills entailed another rush of migration from neighbouring districts, especially Ratnagiri.
- Bombay was a major junction of two important national railway lines. This naturally supported larger and larger flows of migration.
In the 19th century, many new forms of entertainment came into being in England. They are as follows:
- State funded libraries, art galleries and museums were built in order to infuse a sense of pride in the people about Britain's history and achievements. Entry to the British museum was made free which resulted in an increased footfall.
- Pub culture developed. Local working class people met in pubs to have a few drinks, discuss things and even to organize political action.
- Music halls and sailor's homes also came up. Workers were encouraged to take holidays by the sea.
- With the print revolution came about the swarm of popular literature in the form of novels.
Following are the social changes that led to the need for the building of Underground railway in London:
- The constant influx of migrants into London had resulted in a major housing crisis. The tenements built for such migrant workers were unsanitary, unsafe and a breeding ground for diseases. Also, there were fears of fire as it had happened several times in the past and that of an insurrection by the discontented poor.
- There loud demands for the decongestion of the city. As a result, various architectural and housing projects were initiated, e.g. the garden city of New Earswick.
- To persuade people to leave the city and live in suburbs, new forms of mass transport became necessary. As a result, the London Underground Railway was conceptualized.
The Underground railway was criticised because:
- It was a totally new mode of transport and people often scared to travel underground fearing asphyxiation or heat.
- Many felt that the 'iron monster' added to the mess and unhealthiness of the city.
- It displaced a large number of the poor in London. Charles Dickens has written about it extensively in his literary work.
Haussmanisation of Paris refers to the reconstruction of Paris that happened under the stewardship of chief architect Baron Haussman in the mid 19th century.
Pointers for supporting Haussman's development of Paris:
- It enabled a better environment where order could be achieved.
- Enhanced the beauty and aesthetic appeal of the city of Paris.
- Ensured safety of citizens.
Pointers for opposing Haussman's development of Paris:
- Superimposition of upper class culture over the working class culture of Paris.
- Rigid approach towards development.
- No space for creativity, flexibility or diversions.
- Beauty and aesthetic emphasised over needs of the masses.
- Reconstruction was done at the expense of the people's households and living.
- Displacement of approximately 3,50,000 people from the centre of Paris.
- An imposed model of development. Contrary to either democratic values or organic aesthetics of beautification.
Pollution of the environment is directly related to human development. Government regulation came into the picture only when the problem had reached worrisome proportions.
Laws and regulations which have a clearly delineated target group have been found to be relatively more effective than those which do not have a target area. However, it is not really possible to quantify the effectiveness except in a relative sense.
Example: Success in public life - The government has banned the cutting of mangroves in the Bombay region. This has resulted in the preserving of marine life and has protected the coast from erosion or floods. This has resulted in the betterment of the quality of life
Example: Failure in private life - Despite the banning of smoking at public places by the government and a relentless media campaign to create awareness about the ill effects of smoking, a large proportion of the population; including underage children, still smoke tobacco and suffer from its ill effects.
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