NCERT Solution for Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 - Water Resources
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NCERT Solution for Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 - Water Resources Page/Excercise 33
(i) (a) Not suffering from water scarcity
(b) Suffering from water scarcity
(c) Suffering from water scarcity
(d) Not suffering from water scarcity
(ii) (c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
(iii) (a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have caused the over exploitation of water resources.
(b) Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow and causes the sediment to settle at the bottom of the reservoir.
(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline due to theavailability of water from the Rajasthan Canal.
(i) Water is a renewable resource as fresh water mainly obtained from surface run off and ground water is continually being renewed and recharged by the water /hydrological cycle itself.
In hydrological cycle three processes take place - evaporation, condensation and precipitation. This process of the water cycle is never ending and hence, water is a renewable resource.
(ii) Scarcity of water means shortage of water, an imbalance between demand and supply.
Causes or the factors responsible for water scarcity are as follows:
1. A large and growing population is the main cause of water scarcity. More water is required for domestic purposes and for growing food.
2. Urbanization and industrialization have increased the consumption of water.
3. Wastage, excessive use and injudicious use of water.
4. Over-exploitation and mismanagement of water resources.
5. Unequal access to water resources.
6. In post green revolution era, more water intensive commercial crops are grown that consume more water.
7. Pollution of water by domestic and industrial waste, chemicals, pesticides, fertilizers used in agriculture etc.
(iii) The various advantages and disadvantages of multipurpose river projects can be compared as follows
Water supply for industrial and domestic purposes
Natural flow of river is affected causing poor sediment flow .
Excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir
Stream beds become rockier.
Poor habitats for river aquatic life.
Dams fragment a river making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate especially for spawning
Reservoirs on flood plains submerge the existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition over time.
Deforestation and large scale displacement of local people along with loss of their land, livelihood and access and control over resources.
Change in cropping pattern with a shift to water intensive and commercial crops resulting in ecological consequences like salinisation of soil.
Created a social gap between the rich landowners and landless poor.
i) In semi arid regions of Rajasthan rainwater harvesting is carried out in the following manner:
In the arid and semi arid regions of Rajasthan, most of the houses have tanks which are built underground for storing water. Some of these underground tanks may be as large as a big room. These tanks were constructed inside the house or in courtyard. Water in the tank was collected through pipes which were installed on the sloping roofs of the house. This stored rain water was mainly utilised during the summer months especially when other sources of water would dry up.
(ii) Rainwater harvesting means capturing rain when it falls. It is done to meet the increasing demand of water and also to recharge the ground water. People living in rural and urban areas have realized the importance of traditional rainwater harvesting methods like the rooftop storing method and this has been successfully adapted to store and conserve water. The level of underground water in most urban areas has fallen because of increasing population, industrialization etc.
In Gendathur village, Mysore, about 200 households have adopted the rooftop rainwater harvesting method, making the village 'rich in rainwater. With 80% collection efficiency each house can collect about 50,000 litres annually. The Tamil Nadu government has made it compulsory for all the houses to have rooftop rainwater harvesting structures. It is also the most common practice in Shillong and Meghalaya.
(i) In semi arid regions of Rajasthan rainwater harvesting is carried out in their own manner. Houses have traditionally constructed underground tanks or ‘tankas’ for storing rainwater which they use for drinking and other purposes. These are big and are a part of well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system. These tanks are constructed inside the main house or the courtyard and are connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. The rain falling on the rooftop travels down through the pipe and is stored in the tanks (tankas). The first spell of rain is not collected as this water cleans the roof and pipes.
During summer when all other sources of water dry up, these tanks remain the best source of water. The water is sweet and cool here and also help in keeping the houses cool due to conduction.
(ii) Rainwater harvesting means capturing rain when it falls. It is done to meet the increasing demand of water as also to recharge the ground water. People living in urban areas have realized the importance of traditional rainwater harvesting methods like the rooftop storing method. The level of underground water in most of the urban areas has gone down much because of the increasing population, industrialization etc.
In Gendathur village, Mysore, about 200 households have adopted the rooftop rainwater harvesting method, thereby making village rich in rainwater. The Tamil Nadu government has made it compulsory for all the houses to have rooftop rainwater harvesting structures.
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