NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 - Outcomes of Democracy
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NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 - Outcomes of Democracy Page/Excercise 98
How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Democracy builds an accountable government as the government can frame or develop various laws or policies by which citizens can hold the government responsible for any of their policies or programmes.
In a democracy, as the government is elected by the people, it has to respond to their demands. If the government does not pay attention to their demands, people can hold protests, carry out campaigns and organise rallies and force the government to respond to them.
A democratic government is a legitimate government as it is elected by citizens and enjoys the confidence and trust of the citizens.
What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities?
Democracies accommodate social diversities as democracy is not just the rule of the majority. In democratic countries, both the majority and minority work together to achieve progress and development of the nation. It is equally important to understand that the rule of majority is not expressed in terms of religion or languages. Any person or group may become a majority in a democracy.
NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 - Outcomes of Democracy Page/Excercise 99
Give arguments to support or oppose the following assertions:
- Industrialisedcountries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich.
- Democracy cannot reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.
- Government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure.
- In a democracy, all citizens have one vote, which means that there is absence of any domination and conflict.
- This is an incorrect statement. There is no relationship between democracy and industrial growth of a nation. Dictatorship cannot guarantee economic development. Had this been the case then many countries such as Nigeria and Myanmar, which are under dictatorial rule, would have become rich. Economic development depends on the literacy level of the people of the country, availability of natural resources, development of infrastructure, guarantee of employment to the people and sound financial planning and reforms of the government.
- I agree with the statement that democracy cannot reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens. Democracies are based on political equality which means that in a democracy every person above a certain age gets the right to vote. Though democratically elected governments are expected to work towards the reduction of poverty, they have not been successful in reducing economic disparities.
- This is an incorrect statement. No country can become a successful industrialised nation until and unless its population is literate and healthy. Only after the government pays attention towards increasing the literacy rates and improving the health standards of the people, it can develop required human resources which are essential for the industrial development of the country.
- I do not agree with the statement. Though it is right that in a democracy every citizen has the right to cast one vote but it does not mean that there is an absence of conflicts or domination. Conflicts and domination of one group may be the result of social and economic structure of the country. Democracy may go a long way in avoiding such conflicts but may not necessarily eliminate them.
Identify the challenges to democracy in the following descriptions. Also suggest policy/institutional mechanism to deepen democracy in the given situations:
- Following a High Court directive, a temple in Orissa that had separate entry doors for dalits and non-dalitsallowed entry for all from the same door.
- A large number of farmers are committing suicide in different states of India.
- Following allegation of killing of three civilians in Gandwara in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police, an enquiry has been ordered.
- The challenge is to eliminate the inequalities that are based on castes. In this case, those people who indulge in such discriminations should be severely punished as our constitution declares any discrimination based on caste as a crime punishable by law.
- This situation reflects the challenge of economic inequalities that still exist in our country. The Government should provide these farmers with cheap loans and subsidies on seeds and fertilizers and the methods of irrigation should be improved.
- The challenge for the government to make powerful agencies such as the police and army responsible for every act that takes away the right to life and right to freedom. Laws should be made to curb the special powers that are given to the police and armed forces of certain states.
In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct, democracies have successfully eliminated:
Α. Conflicts among people.
Β. Economic inequalities among people.
C. Differences of opinion about how marginalised sections are to be treated.
D. The idea of political inequality.
D. The idea of political inequality
In the context of assessing democracy, which among the following is the odd one out? Democracies need to ensure
Α. Free and fair elections
Β. Dignity of the individual
C. Majority rule
D. Equal treatment before law
C. Majority rule
Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that
Α. Democracy and development go together
Β. Inequalities exist in democracies
C. Inequalities do not exist under dictatorship
D. Dictatorship is better than democracy
B. Inequalities exist in democracies
NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 - Outcomes of Democracy Page/Excercise 100
Read the passage below:
Nannu is a daily wage earner. He lives in Welcome Mazdoor Colony, a slum habitation in East Delhi. He lost his ration card and applied for a duplicate one in January 2004. He made several rounds to the local Food and Civil Supplies office for the next three months. But the clerks and officials would not even look at him, leave alone do his job or bother to tell him the status of his application. Ultimately, he filed an application under the Right to Information Act asking for the daily progress made on his application, names of the officials, who were supposed to act on his application and what action would be taken against these officials for their inaction. Within a week of filing application, under the Right to Information Act, he was visited by an inspector from the Food Department, who informed him that the card had been made and he could collect it from the office. When Nannu went to collect his card next day, he was given a very warm treatment by the Food and Supply Officer (FSO), who is the head of a Circle. The FSO offered him tea and requested him to withdraw his application under the Right to Information since his work had already been done.
What does Nannu's example show? What impact did Nannu's action have on officials? Ask your parents their experiences when they approach government officials to attend their problems.
Nannu's example shows that in a democracy, poor, helpless and common people can take the help of number of Acts and laws that have been implemented by the government for their benefit. In this case, Nannu after visiting a governmental organisation several times, filed the Right to Information Act for enquiring about the progress that has been made by the officials in his case. As soon as he filed this Act, a ration card was immediately issued to him and he was also treated properly by the officials.
Experience of many people has not been pleasant when it comes to visiting any governmental organisation for getting work done. Mostly, the attitude of officials is not very friendly and most of the time their work is done only after paying several visits to them.
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