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NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy

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NCERT Textbook Solutions are considered extremely helpful when preparing for your CBSE Class 10 Civics board exams. TopperLearning study resources infuse profound knowledge, and our Textbook Solutions compiled by our subject experts are no different. Here you will find all the answers to the NCERT textbook questions of Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy.

All our solutions for Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy are prepared considering the latest CBSE syllabus, and they are amended from time to time. Our free NCERT Textbook Solutions for CBSE Class 10 Civics will strengthen your fundamentals in this chapter and can help you to score more marks in the examination. Refer to our Textbook Solutions any time, while doing your homework or while preparing for the exam.

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NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy Page/Excercise 103

Question 1

Each of these cartoons represents a challenge to democracy. Please describe what that challenge is? Also place it in one of the three categories mentioned in the first section.

Solution 1

  

  

  

NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy Page/Excercise 104

Question 2

Case and Context

 

Your description of the challenges for democracy in that situation

Chile: General Pinochet's government was defeated, but military was still in control of many institutions

 

(Example) Establishing civilian control over all governmental institutions, holding the first multi-party elections and recalling all political leaders from exile.

Poland: After the first success of solidarity, the government imposed martial law and banned solidarity.


Ghana: Just attained independence; Nkrumah elected the President.

 

 

 

Mynamar: Suu Kyi was under house arrest for more than 15 years; army rulers getting global acceptance

 

 

 

International Organisations: US as the only super power disregards the UN and takes unilateral action.

 

 

 

Mexico: Second free election after the defeat of PRI in 2000; defeated candidates alleges rigging.

 

 

 

China: Communist party adopts economic reforms but maintains monopoly over political power.

 

 

 

Pakistan: General Musharraf holds referendum, allegations of fraud in voter's list.

 

 

 

Iraq: widespread sectarian violence as the new government fails to establish its authority.

 

 

 

South Africa: Mandela retires from active politics, pressure on his successor Mbeki to withdraw some concessions given to White minority.

 

 

 

US, Guantanamo Bay: UN Secretary General calls this a violation of international law, US refused to respond

 

 

 

Saudi Arabia: Women not allowed to take part in public activities; no freedom of religion for the minority.

 

 

 

Yugoslavia: Ethnic tension between Serbs and Albanians on the rise in the province of Kosovo; Yugoslavia disintegrated.

 

 

 

Belgium: One round of constitutional change took place, but the Dutch speakers not satisfied; they want more autonomy.

 

 

 

Sri Lanka: The peace talks between the government and LTTE breaks down, renewed violence.

 

 

 

US, Civil Rights: Blacks have won equal rights, but they are still poor, less educated and marginalised.

 

 

 

Northern Ireland: The civil war has ended but Catholics and Protestants yet to develop trust.

 

 

 

Nepal: Constituent Assembly about to be elected; unrest in Tarai areas; Maoists have not surrendered arms.

 

 

 

Bolivia: Morales, a supporter of water struggle, becomes Prime Minister; MNCs threaten to leave the country

 

 

 

Solution 2

 

Case and Context

 

Your description of the challenges for democracy in that situation

Chile: General Pinochet's government was defeated, but military was still in control of many institutions.

(Example) Establishing civilian control over all governmental institutions, holding the first multi-party elections, recalling all political leaders from exile.

Poland: After the first success of solidarity, the government imposed martial law and banned solidarity.

Establishing political freedom of the people of the country, restoration of democracy and holding of free and fair elections.

Ghana: Just attained independence, Nkrumah elected the President.

 

To strengthen the roots of democracy and to curb the growing political power of the military.

Mynamar: Suu Kyi under house arrest for more than 15 years, army rulers getting global acceptance.

 

To weaken the political power of military and restore democracy. To give the freedom of speech and expression to people.

International Organisations: US as the only superpower disregards the UN and takes unilateral action.

To give equal voting rights to all member nations of the world.

Mexico: Second free election after the defeat of PRI in 2000; defeated candidates alleges rigging.

To hold free and fair elections without any malpractices and influence of the reigning government.

China: The Communist party adopts economic reforms but maintains a monopoly over political power.

To hold multiparty free and fair elections.

Pakistan: General Musharraf holds referendum, allegations of fraud in the voter's list.

To eliminate fraud malpractices during referendum and elections.

Iraq: Widespread sectarian violence as the new government fails to establish its authority.

To prevent the killings based on sects.

South Africa: Mandela retires from active politics; pressure on his successor Mbeki to withdraw some concessions given to the white minority.

To prevent the domination of majority community over the minority community.

US, Guantanamo Bay: UN Secretary General calls this a violation of international law; US refused to respond.

To prevent the domination of the world body like UNO from domination of influential, rich and powerful countries like USA

Saudi Arabia: Women were not allowed to take part in public activities, no freedom of religion for the minority.

To establish the principle of universal adult franchise and the freedom to practice ones own religion.

Yugoslavia: Ethnic tension between Serbs and Albanians on the rise in the province of Kosovo; Yugoslavia disintegrated.

To minimize social differences and social divisions in disintegrated Yugoslavia and to establish the principle of power sharing.

Belgium: One round of constitutional change taken place, but the Dutch speakers not satisfied; they want more autonomy.

To give equal political rights to both the Dutch and French speaking communities. To prevent the partition of the country on linguistic basis.

Sri Lanka: Peace talks between the government and LTTE breaks down, renewed violence.

To prevent a civil war, the brutal state supported violence on the sectarian minority community.

US, Civil Rights: Blacks have won equal rights, but they are still poor, less educated and marginalised.

To establish economic equality and provide equal opportunities of education and health facilities to all including blacks.

Northern Ireland: The civil war has ended but Catholics and Protestants yet to develop trust.

To provide equal political, religious and economic freedom to both the communities.

Nepal: Constituent Assembly about to be elected; unrest in Tarai areas; Maoists have not surrendered arms.

To establish and strengthen democracy and to prevent violence that can threaten the forces of democracy.

Bolivia: Morales, a supporter of water struggle, becomes the Prime Minister, MNC's threaten to leave the country.

To establish democratic principles, which are beneficial to each and every section of society.


 

NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy Page/Excercise 106

Question 3

Different types of challenges:

Constitutional design

 

 

 

Democratic rights

 

 

 

Working of institutions

 

 

 

Elections

 

 

 

Federalism, decentralization

 

 

 

Accommodation of diversity

 

 

 

Political Organisation

 

 

 

Any Other Category

 

 

 

Any Other Category

 

 

 

Foundational Challenge

 

 

 

Challenge of Expansion

 

 

 

Challenge of deepening

 

 

 

Solution 3

 

Constitutional design

 

It is related to framing of the Constitution and giving rights and freedom to people. It applies for countries like Saudi Arabia, China, Belgium, Nepal and Poland.

Democratic rights

 

 

To provide people with basic rights and freedoms in countries like Saudi Arabia, Guantanamo Bay and Poland.

In India, even now in villages, people of lower caste are discriminated.

Working of institutions

 

 

Challenge to non-democratic countries like Mexico, Myanmar and China.

In India, some parties and organisations work on caste and communal lines.

Elections

 

 

To hold free and fair elections in countries like Mexico, Chile and Poland.

In India, rigging of elections is a big challenge to democracy.

Federalism, decentralization

 

 

To establish democratic institutions at local levels also in Yugoslavia and Belgium.

In India, the challenge is to establish linguistic equality.

Accommodation of diversity

 

 

To resolve social diversified issues in countries like Northern Ireland, Yugoslavia, Belgium and Sri Lanka.

In India, caste and communal clashes pose a challenge to democracy.

Political Organisation

 

 

To democratise organisations in countries like Ghana, Northern Ireland, Sri Lanka and South Africa.

In India, there is increased criminalisation of political parties.

Religious and equality

 

 

To establish religious equality in countries like Saudi Arabia and Northern Ireland.

In India, religious, social and economic discrimination of people belonging to lower castes exists.

NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy Page/Excercise 107

Question 4

Let us group these again, this time by the nature of these challenges as per the classification suggested in the first section. For each of these categories, find at least one example from India as well.

Foundational Challenge

 

Challenge of Expansion

 

Challenge of deepening

 

 

Solution 4

Foundational Challenge

Poland, Iraq and Nepal.

In India, carving the states of Telangana out of Andhra Pradesh and decide the status of Hyderabad.

 

Challenge of Expansion

 

 

Ghana, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland.

In India, to grant more powers to local self-institutions like municipal bodies and village panchayats.

 

Challenge of deepening

 

 

Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Belgium and US- Civil rights.

In India, to increase women representation in Parliament and state legislatures.

 

Question 5

Now, let us think only about India. Think of all the challenges that democracy faces in contemporary India. List those five that should be addressed first of all. The listing should be in order of priority, i.e. the challenge you find the most important or pressing should be mentioned at number 1, and so on. Give one example of that challenge and your reasons for assigning it the priority.

Solution 5

Priority

Challenges to democracy

Example

Reasons for Preference

 

1.

 

Criminalisation of Politics

To prevent people with criminal charges to participate in elections.

To have only people with a clean image to govern and frame laws for the country.

2.

 

 

Challenge of Deepening

 

 

To provide religious, social and economic equalities to the people of lower castes.

To eliminate any kind of social, political and religious discriminations.

3.

 

 

Corruption

 

To lure the poor voters to vote for their parties by offering money and food grains like wheat and rice at low costs.

To allow free and fair elections and to give fair chance to independent candidates.

4.

 

 

Challenge of expansion

 

 

To give proposed 33% reservation for women in parliament.

To give better representation to women who constitute half of the population of the country.

5.

 

 

Challenge of Deepening

To accommodate various social diversified issues

To avoid the domination of majority over minority.

NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy Page/Excercise 109

Question 6

Here are some challenges that require political reforms. Discuss these challenges in detail and study the reform options offered here and give your preferred solutions with reasons. Remember that none of the options offered here and give your preferred solution with reasons. Remember that none of the options offered here is 'right' or 'wrong'. You can opt for a mix for more than one option, or come up with something that is not offered here. But you must give your solution in detail and offer reasons for your choice.

Doctors' absenteeism

Challenge

Political funding

 Challenge

The Uttar Pradesh government got a survey done and found most of the doctors posted in the rural primary health centers are simply not there. They live in a town, carry out private practice and visit the village where they are posted only once or twice in the entire month. Villagers have to travel to towns and pay a very high fee to private doctors even for the most common ailments.

Reform Proposals: 

 

 

On an average, every candidate who contested the last Lok Sabha elections owned property of more than one crore. There is a fear that only wealthy people or those with their support can afford to fight elections. Most of the political parties depend on money given by big business houses. The worry is that the role of money in politics will reduce whatever little voice the poor have in our democracy.

Reform proposals:

 

 

The government should make it compulsory for the doctors to live in the village, where they are posted, otherwise their service should be terminated.

The financial accounts of every political party should be made public. These accounts should be examined by government auditors.

District administration and police should carry out surprise raids to check the attendance of the doctors.

 

 

There should be state funding of elections. Parties should be given some money by the government to meet their election expenditure.

Village panchayat should be given the power to write the annual report of the doctor, which should be read out in the Gram Sabha meeting.

Citizens should be encouraged to give more donations to parties and political workers. Such donations should be exempt from income tax.

Problems like this can be solved only if Uttar Pradesh is split into several smaller states which can be administered more efficiently.

 

 

Any other problem of your choice:

Challenge

Reform Proposals: 

Solution 6

Challenge

There is an increased criminalisation of politics. Many people who have been charged with criminal cases have nominated their papers for the central and the state elections. There is general concern among the common people about the outcome of the elections. Often such contestants get themselves elected either by rigging the votes or by distributing money to the people. If people with criminal charges get elected to Parliament, then what kind of governance can be expected out of them?

Reform Proposals:

  • People with serious criminal charges should be debarred from contesting the elections.
  • Fast courts should be set up for the trial of convicted MPs and MLAs.
  • Steps should be taken to prohibit any kind of monetary and material distribution at the eve of elections.

NCERT Solution for Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy Page/Excercise 112

Question 7

Write about your definition of good democracy in not more than fifty words.

Also discuss some features of democracy.

Solution 7

Democracy is the governance by a group of people (government) who are elected by the people of the country in free and fair elections. The government governs the country according to the constitution. In a democracy, people have freedom of speech and expression and judiciary is independent of the control of executive and legislature.

Features:

  1. People choose their own government.
  2. Final decision making powers rests with the elected representatives of the people.
  3. Holding of free and fair elections.
  4. Every adult citizen has one vote and every vote has equal value.
  5. Guarantee of fundamental rights and freedom to the people.
  6. Rule of law prevails.
  7. Judiciary is independent of legislature and executive.

TopperLearning provides step-by-step solutions for each question in each chapter in the NCERT textbook. Access Chapter 8 - Challenges To Democracy here for free.

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CBSE X - Civics

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