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NOR (NOT+OR) gate: It is obtained by connecting the output of an OR gate to the input of a NOT gate. Its output is high if neither input A nor input B is high. It is described by the Boolean expression
Which is read as ‘A and B negated equals Y’.
XOR or Exclusive OR gate: The XOR gate gives a high output if either input A or B is high but not when both A and B are high or low. It can be obtained by using a combination of two NOT gates, two AND gates and one OR gate. It is described by the Boolean expression
The XOR gate is also known as the difference gate because its output is high when the inputs are different.
Integrated circuits: The concept of fabricating an entire circuit (consisting of many passive components such as R and C and active devices such as a diode and transistor) on a small single block (or chip) of a semiconductor has revolutionised electronics technology. Such a circuit is known as an integrated circuit (IC).
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