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Solutions

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Solutions PDF Notes, Important Questions and Formulas

 Introduction to Solution

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances which are chemically non-reacting. We come across many types of solutions in our daily life. e.g., solid liquid, liquid-liquid, gas-gas. In this chapter we will learn several properties of solutions and their applications.

Solution: A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is known as solution. Solute: The substance present in smaller amount in a solution is called solute.

Solvent: The substance present in larger amount in a solution is called solvent.

Binary solutions: Those solutions which contain two components are called binary solutions, e.g., salt solution, benzene and toluene.

Ternary solutions: Those solutions which contain three components are called ternary solutions, e.g., ethanol + water + acetic acid.

Aqueous solution: When solute is dissolved in water, it is called aqueous solution, e.g., sugar solution, ethanol in water.

Non-aqueous solution: When solute is dissolved in solvent other than water, it is called non-aqueous solution, e.g., iodine dissolved in alcohol (Tincture of iodine).

Miscible liquids: Those liquids which mix with each other\ and form homogeneous mixture are called miscible liquids.

Immiscible liquids: Those liquids which do not mix with each other are called immiscible liquids.

Alloys: Solid solutions of the two or more metals are called alloys. One of them can be a non-metal also.

TYPES OF SOLUTIONS

Solutions can have continuously variable compositions, and they are homogeneous on a scale beyond the size of individual molecules. This definition can be used to cover a wide variety of systems, including ordinary solution such as alcohol in water or HClO4 in benzene and even solution of large proteins in aqueous salt solutions. It is also useful sometimes to consider some colloidal suspensions undergoing Brownian motion as solutions, and there are solid solutions where one solid is uniformly dissolved in another. 

SOME EXAMPLES OF SOLUTIONS

Solute

Solvent

Name of Type

Heat of solution per Mole of solute (kJ)

O2(g)

N2(g)

Gaseous

0

Toluene

Benzene

Ideal

-0.1

Acetone

Chloroform

Non ideal

5

NaCl(s)

H2O(𝑙)

Ionic

-3.9

H2SO4

H20(𝑙)

Ionic

95.3

Positive value are heat released.

Most solutions can be described as having a majority called a solvent and one or more minority ingredients called solutes. The solvent is usually a liquid, whereas solutes can be solids, liquids, or gases. Solutions can be distinguished from compounds by the kind of interaction between ingredients. Compounds form as a result of interactions between relatively permanent partners, while the interactions in solutions involve continuously variable sets of solute and solvent molecules, and this interaction is widely distributed among a large and solvent molecules. Above table gives some examples of solutions and for each we want to be able to understand why the solute dissolves in the solvent.

S. No

Solute

Solvent

Type of solutions

Example

Solid Solutions

1

Solid

Solid

Solid in solid

All alloys like brass, bronze, an alloys of copper and gold, etc.

2

Liquid

Solid

Liquid in solid

Amalgam of mercury with Na, CuSO4.5H2O. FeSO4.7H2O

3

Gas

Solid

Gas in solid

Solution of H2 in Pd, dissolved gases in minerals.

Liquid Solutions

1

Solid

Liquid

Solid in Liquid

Sugar solution, salt solution, l2 in CCl4

2

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid in Liquid

Benzene in toluene, alcohol in water.

3

Gas

Liquid

Gas in Liquid

CO2 in water, NH3 in water etc. 

Gaseous Solutions

1

Solid

Gas

Solid in gas

Iodine vapours in air, camphor vapours in N2.

2

Liquid

Gas

Liquid in gas

Water vapours in air, CHCl3 vapours in N2

3

Gas

Gas

Gas in gas

Air (O2 + N2)

Concentration terms

The concentration of a solution can be expressed by different concentration terms which are described as follows. The terms which represent relative amounts of solute and solvent in the given solution are known as\ concentration terms.

Different Types of Concentration Terms

1. Mole-fraction(x)

It is the ratio of number of moles of a particular component to the total number of moles of all the components. E. g.,

Mole-fraction of component A,begin mathsize 12px style straight X subscript straight A equals fraction numerator straight n subscript straight A over denominator straight n subscript straight A plus straight n subscript straight B end fraction end style where nA is the number of moles of component ‘A’ and nB is the number of moles of component ‘B’.

For binary mixture.

Xsolute=begin mathsize 12px style fraction numerator moles text  of solvent  end text over denominator Total text  moles in solutions end text end fraction end style=begin mathsize 12px style fraction numerator straight N over denominator straight n plus straight N end fraction end style

Xsolute=begin mathsize 12px style fraction numerator moles text  of solvent  end text over denominator Total text  moles in solutions end text end fraction end style=begin mathsize 12px style fraction numerator straight N over denominator straight n plus straight N end fraction end style

Xsolute+Xsolvent =1

2. Molality(m)

It is defined as number of moles of solute per 1000g or 1 kg of solvent

Molality=No. of moles of solute per kg (1000g) of solvent.

             Let W gram of solute (Molar mass=Mg/mole)

                Molality=begin mathsize 12px style left parenthesis straight W over straight M right parenthesis cross times fraction numerator 1000 over denominator straight W left parenthesis straight g right parenthesis end fraction end style

                Molality=begin mathsize 12px style fraction numerator moles cross times 1000 over denominator straight W left parenthesis straight g right parenthesis of text  solvent end text end fraction end style

Molality not depends on temperature.

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