- Online Test Series
- Final Revision Module (3 Books)
- 5 Mock Tests
- 5 Diagnostic Tests
- 15 Practice Tests
- Sample Papers With Solutions
- Past Year Papers with Solutions
- Ask The Expert
- On Call Mentorship
Preparation of Amines:
Amines can be prepared using the following methods:
The process of cleavage of the C-X bond by ammonia molecule is known as ammonolysis.
The order of reactivity of halides with amines is RI >RBr > RCl
Reduction of Nitriles
Nitriles on reducing with LiAlH4 or catalytic hydrogenation produce primary amines.
This method is used for preparing amines containing one carbon atom more than the starting amine.
Reduction of Amides
Amides on reducing with LiAlH4 yield amines.
Gabriel pthalimide synthesis
This method is used for the preparation of primary amines.
Pthalimide on reacting with ethanolic solution of KOH forms potassium salt of pthalimide which on heating with alkyl halide followed by alkaline hydrolysis yields the corresponding primary amine.
Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction
In this method, primary amines are prepared by treating an amide with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic solution of NaOH.
In this degradation reaction,migration of alkyl or aryl group takes place from carbonyl carbon of the amide to the nitrogen atom.
The amine formed has one carbon atom less than the starting amide.
Reaction of Amines
Hinsberg’s reagent or benzenesulphonyl chloride (C6H5SO2Cl) reacts with primary amines and secondary amines to form sulphonamides.
Ortho- and para-positions to the -NH2 group become centres of high electron density.
Alternatively, chlorine or bromine can also be introduced in the benzene ring by treating the diazonium salt solution with corresponding halogen acid in the presence of Cu powder. This is referred as Gatterman reaction.
By learning in meritnation I got B2, but by learning topper learning I got A1... so which is the best. This is awesome to learn and easy to study science. At 1st term I got B2 but at 2nd term I got A1.
Manoj Vijay CBSE class IX
Excellent Faculty! I have been studying from topperlearning.com since Class IX and have consistently scored above 90% in my these 4 years.I studied throughout nights to achieve my goal.Moreover, becoming Rank 1 on topperlearning boosted my confidence to high skies.Thank you topperlearning, without you I would not have been able to score 91.2% in Class XII Boards(2015) and CGPA 9.8 in my Class X Boards(2013). Hope that topperlearning will continue to help students throughout India, creating a brighter future for them. Regards, Vivek Saahil
Vivek Saahil CBSE class XII Science
I like topper learning because I can understand the level I have prepared for my subject and study better.
Mohanapriya Saravanakumar CBSE class X
Topperlearning is really a very good helping tool. Every time I had doubts related to any concept in PCM I posted it and immediately my problem was solved. It also helped me in scoring good ranks in competitive exams too. The topper faculty is very good. The teachers explained each and every concept in depth. My favourite teacher is Physics teacher
Sahibdeep Singh Sodhi CBSE class XII Science
We all know that audio-visual medium is a better way of explaining and educating the students. It not only makes learning fun but also gives the message more clearly and precisely. Topper is a very good amalgamation of good teaching and good learning methods.
Sonia Malik, Professor
VV DAV School, New Delhi class ALL Class
Queries asked on Sunday and after 7 pm from Monday to Saturday will be answered after 12 pm the next working day.
please EXPLAIN the basic strength order of following compound