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Organic Compounds Containing Halogens

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Organic Compounds Containing Halogens PDF Notes, Important Questions and Formulas

Alkyl halide

1.1 ALIPHATIC HALOGEN DERIVATIVES:

Compounds obtained by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atom(s) from hydrocarbons are known as halogen derivatives. The halogen derivatives of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes are known as alkyl halide (haloalkene), alkenyl halide (haloalkenes), alkynyl halides (haloalkynes) and aryl halides (halobenzenes) respectively.

Alkyl halides: Monohalogen derivatives of alkanes are known as alkyl halides.

Structure of alkyl halides:


Classification of alkyl halides:

(i)   Primary halide : If the halogen bearing carbon is bonded to one carbon atom or with no carbon atom

Example:

CH3 – X, R - CH2 - X

(ii)   Secondary halide: If two carbon atoms are bonded to the halogen bearing carbon.

Example:

 

(iii)Tertiary halide: Three other carbon atom bonded to the halogen bearing carbon atom.

Example:

Halolkanes can be classified into following three categories.

(i) Monohaloalkanes (ii) Dihaloalkanes     (iii) Polyhaloalkanes

1.2 IUPAC NOMENCLATURE OF ALKYL HALIDES

S.N

Compound

IUPAC name

1.

 

2 – Chloro-2-methylpropane

2.

 

3–Bromo – 1-chlorobutane

3.

 

2-Bromo-1-chloro-4-fluro-3-methylbutane

4.

 

2-Bromo-1-chloro-3-iodocyclopentane

5.

 

5-chloropentan-2-ol

6.

 

5-Fluropent-1-ene

7.

 

Chlorophenylmethane

8.

 

Dichlorophenylmethane

9.

 

Trichlorophenylmethane

10.

 

2,2-Bis(chloromethyl)-1,3-dichloropropane

11.

 

Cis-1,4-dibromocyclohexane

12.

 

2-iodo-3-phenylbutane

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