- Online Test Series
- Final Revision Module (3 Books)
- 5 Mock Tests
- 5 Diagnostic Tests
- 15 Practice Tests
- Sample Papers With Solutions
- Past Year Papers with Solutions
- Ask The Expert
- On Call Mentorship
Some important aromatic compound with their common names.
IUPAC Name of Substituted phenol and benzoic acid.
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction
A reaction energy diagram for the electrophilic bromination of benzene. The reaction occurs in two steps and releases energy.
Some Electrophilic Aromatic substitution reactions:
Figure Substituent effects in electrophilic aromatic substitutions. All activating groups are ortho-and para-directing, and all deactivating groups other than halogen are meta-directing. The halogens are ortho and para-directing deactivators.
Alkane are the saturated non polar hydrocarbon having general formula CnH2n+2.
Hydrocarbon – Those organic compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms are known as hydrocarbons.
General method of preparation
Hydrogen → Addition of H2 to unsaturated bond
Hydrogenation is of two kind
(b) Homogeneous→ It is one phase hydrogenation both catalyst and alkenes area solution. In this hydrogenation catalyst are organic complex of transition metal like Rh or Ir.
Hydrogenation is exothermic, qualitative and during the hydrogenation, total heat evolved to hydrogenate one mole of unsaturated compound is called heat of hydrogenation. Heat of hydrogenation is the measurement of stability of isomeric alkenes.
Mechanism →Two mechanisms are suggested
Free radical mechanism
The alkyl halide should be 1° or 2°, with 3° R-X SN2 and free radical coupling is not possible due to steric hinderance so in that case elimination or disproportionate is possible.
In the ionic mechanism alkyl sodium gives strong base as well as nucleophilic
which gives SN2 with R-X, ether should be dry otherwise, if moisture is present then forms R-H instead of R-R with H2O
(ii) By G. R
RMgX + H congaing compound→ R – H
(iii) By corey house alkane synthesis
R2 CuLi is the source of ⊖R
R2 CuLi do not react with –NO2, -CN, >C=O etc.
By learning in meritnation I got B2, but by learning topper learning I got A1... so which is the best. This is awesome to learn and easy to study science. At 1st term I got B2 but at 2nd term I got A1.
Manoj Vijay CBSE class IX
Excellent Faculty! I have been studying from topperlearning.com since Class IX and have consistently scored above 90% in my these 4 years.I studied throughout nights to achieve my goal.Moreover, becoming Rank 1 on topperlearning boosted my confidence to high skies.Thank you topperlearning, without you I would not have been able to score 91.2% in Class XII Boards(2015) and CGPA 9.8 in my Class X Boards(2013). Hope that topperlearning will continue to help students throughout India, creating a brighter future for them. Regards, Vivek Saahil
Vivek Saahil CBSE class XII Science
I like topper learning because I can understand the level I have prepared for my subject and study better.
Mohanapriya Saravanakumar CBSE class X
Topperlearning is really a very good helping tool. Every time I had doubts related to any concept in PCM I posted it and immediately my problem was solved. It also helped me in scoring good ranks in competitive exams too. The topper faculty is very good. The teachers explained each and every concept in depth. My favourite teacher is Physics teacher
Sahibdeep Singh Sodhi CBSE class XII Science
We all know that audio-visual medium is a better way of explaining and educating the students. It not only makes learning fun but also gives the message more clearly and precisely. Topper is a very good amalgamation of good teaching and good learning methods.
Sonia Malik, Professor
VV DAV School, New Delhi class ALL Class
Queries asked on Sunday and after 7 pm from Monday to Saturday will be answered after 12 pm the next working day.
in which order they are reactive toward electrophile .¿
Please answer the following question with explanation