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General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Metals
General Principles up to Purification Minerals: Naturally occurring chemical substance in which metal exist either in its free state or in combined state is called mineral. Ore: Mineral from which metal can be conventionally and economically extracted is called ore & impurities associated with it is called gangue or matrix
Types of Ores:
Galena: PbS, Cinnabar: HgS,
Zinc blend: Zns, Chalcopyrite: CuFeS2
Copper glance: Cu2S Fool’s Gold: FeS2
Bauxite: Al2O3.2H2O Haematite: Fe2O3
Limonite: Fe2O3. 3H2O Tin stone or Cassiterite: SnO2
Siderite: FeCO3 Calamine: Fe2O3
Malacite: Cu (OH) 2, CuSO4 Dolomite CaCO3-
lime stone: CaCO3
Gypsom: CaSO4.2H2O Anylesite PbSO4
Glauber’s salt: Na2SO4- 10 H2O Mohr’s salt: Feso4. (NH4)2SO4. 6H2O
Rock Salt: NaCl Cryolite: Na3AlF6
Fluorspar: CaF2 Carnallite: KCl.MgCl2.6H2O
Chiele Saltpeter: NaNO3 Indian Salt petre: KNO3
Those metals which are chemically less reactive. They occur in the earth crust in form of free state (lumbs)
e.g.: Cu, Ag, Au, Hg, Pd, Pt, Bi
General principles and processes involved in the extraction of metal from its ore:
The extraction of metal from its ore is completed in five steps:
Step I: Pulverization: The crushing of ore to powdered state is called pulverisation.
Step II: concentration or Dressing or Beneficiation of ore
Step III: Conversion of Concentrated ore into oxide form
Step IV: Reduction of oxide to the metal
Step V: Purification or refining of crude metal
Step I: Pulverization:
The crushing of ore to powdered state is called pulverization
This process in stamp mill or ball mill
Step II: Concentration or Dressing or beneficiation of Ore
(a) By gravity Separation: Ore particles are heavier than gangue particles. This is used for the separation of most of the gangue particles:
⟹By Wilfley Table Method
Aq. Supersion of powdered/Crushed ore
⟹By Hydraulic Classifier
Step III: Conversion of Concentrated ore into oxide form:
It is done either by calcination or by roasting.
Roasting: In the presence of air the sulphide are heated in free supply of air below m.p. Impurities of sulphur, phosphorus, arsenic & antimony are converted into their corresponding volatile oxide & thus get removed. Moisture & water of crystallization are also removed.
(Utilised in manufacturing of H2SO4)
Step IV: Reduction of oxide to the metal:
(a) eduction of metal oxide/ Conc. Ore into free metal.
This can be carried out
(i) (i) & (ii) method are collectively known as Pyrometallury e.g. Sn, Pb, Fe, Hg, Cu, B, Zn, (Based on Ellinghum diagram)
(ii) step is called hydrometallurgy - Cu, Ag, Au are extracted
(iii) Step is called hydrometallurgy, Alkali, Alkaline earth metals & Al & base electrolysis
(iv) is used for Ag & Au
Step V: Purification or refining of crude metal
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