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D - And F - Block Elements

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d and f Block Elements PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis

SYNOPSIS 

D-Block Elements:
The general electronic configuration of d-block elements is (n-1) d1-10 ns0-2, where n is the outermost shell.
Different oxidation states of the first transition series:

Element

Outer electronic configuration

Oxidation states

Sc

3d14s2

+3

Ti

3d24s2

+2, +3, +4

V

3d34s2

+2, +3, +4, +5

Cr

3d54s1

+2, +3, (+4), (+5), +6

Mn

3d54s2

+2, +3, +4, (+5), +6, +7

Fe

3d64s2

+2, +3, (+4), (5), +6, +7

Co

3d74s2

+2, +3, (+4)

Ni

3d84s2

+2, +3, +4

Cu

3d104s1

+1, +2

Zn

3d104s2

+2

Characteristics of Oxides and Some lons of V and Cr

 

Oxidation State

Oxide/Hydroxide

Behaviour

Ion

Name of Ion

Colour of Ion

+2

VO

Basic

V2+

vanadium (II) (vanadous)

violet

+3

V2O5

basic

V3+

vanadium (III) (vanadic)

green

+4

VO2

amphoteric

VO2+

 

 

 begin mathsize 12px style straight V subscript 4 straight O subscript 9 superscript 2 end style

oxovanadium (IV) (vanadyl)

 

hypovanadate (vanadate)

blue

+5

V2O5

amphoteric

 begin mathsize 12px style table attributes columnalign left end attributes row cell VO subscript 2 superscript plus end cell row cell VO subscript 4 superscript 3 minus end superscript end cell end table end style

dioxovanadium (V)

orthovanadate

brown

+2

 begin mathsize 12px style open table attributes columnalign left end attributes row CrO row cell Cr open parentheses OH close parentheses subscript 2 end cell end table close square brackets end style

basic

Cr2+

Chromium (II)

(chromous)

 

yellow colourless

+2

 begin mathsize 12px style open table attributes columnalign left end attributes row CrO row cell Cr open parentheses OH close parentheses subscript 2 end cell end table close square brackets end style

basic

Cr2+

Chromium (II)

(chromous)

light blue

 

 

light blue

+3

 begin mathsize 12px style open table attributes columnalign left end attributes row cell Cr subscript 2 straight O subscript 3 end cell row cell Cr open parentheses OH close parentheses subscript 3 end cell end table close square brackets end style

amphoteric

 begin mathsize 12px style open square brackets blank subscript Cr left parenthesis OH right parenthesis to the power of minus end subscript superscript Cr to the power of 3 plus end exponent end superscript close end style

Chromium (III) chromic chromite

violet

 

green

+5

 begin mathsize 12px style open table attributes columnalign left end attributes row cell CrO subscript 3 end cell row cell CrO subscript 2 open parentheses OH subscript 2 close parentheses end cell row cell straight H subscript 2 Cr subscript 2 straight O subscript 7 end cell end table close square brackets end style

acidic

 begin mathsize 12px style open square brackets blank subscript Cr subscript 2 straight O subscript 7 superscript 2 minus end superscript end subscript superscript CrO subscript 4 superscript 2 minus end superscript end superscript close end style

Chromate

 

dichromate

yellow

 

orange

Magnetic Properties:

  1. Paramagnetic substances: Substances which are attracted by the magnetic field are called paramagnetic substances.
  2. Diamagnetic substances: Substances which are repelled by the magnetic field are called diamagnetic substances. The spin only magnetic moment can be calculated from the relation:
    where n is the number of unpaired electrons and  is magnetic moment in Bohr magneton (BM) units.

    d-Block metal compounds:
  1. Hydrated ferrous sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3):
  2. Hydrated copper sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O):


  3. Silver nitrate (AgNO3):
  4. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4):

  5. Potassium dichromate (K2CrO7):

 

f-Block elements:

  • Electronic configuration: (n-2)f1-14(n-1)d0-1ns2
  • Lanthanoids: The 14 elements immediately following lanthanum, i.e. cerium (58) to lutetium (71) are called lanthanoids.
  • Actinoids: The 14 elements immediately following actinium (89), with atomic numbers 90 to 103 are called actinoids.
  • Differences between lanthanoids and actinoids:

                                Lanthanoids

                            Actinoids

    4f-orbital is progressively filled.

    5f-orbital is progressively filled.

    Only promethium (Pm) is a radioactive element.

    All are radioactive.

     

    Less reactive (than actinoids).

    More reactive.

    +3 oxidation state is most common along with +2 and +4.

    They show +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7 oxidation states.

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