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Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
A molecule will be formed if it is more stable and has a lower energy than the individual atom. Normally only electrons in the outermost shell of an atom are involved in forming bonds, and in this process each atom attains a stable electronic configuration of an inert gas.
Types of Bonds:
I. Metal + Nonmetal
II. Nonmetal + Nonmetal
III. Metal + Metal
IV. Electron deficient molecule or ion (Lewis acid) and electron rich molecule or ion (Lewis base)
V. H and electronegative elements (N, O, F sometimes with C1)
Ionic, covalent and coordinate bonding Ionic bonding
An ionic bond is formed when a metal atom transfers one or more electron to a non-metal atom.
The oppositely charged ions get attracted through electrostatic force of attraction.
Properties of ionic compounds:
Whenever Chemical bond is formed by sharing of electrons then it is named as covalent bond.
Coordinate Bonding or Dative Bond:
Whenever covalent bond is formed by unequal sharing of a pair of electrons between a Lewis base and Lewis acid is called coordinate bond.
Valence Bond (V.B) theory:
According to this theory, a covalent bond is formed by the overlapping of atomic orbitals. Important points of this theory are summarised below.
It is defined as the concept of intermixing of orbitals of equivalent energy, identical shapes and which are symmetrically disposed in plane. Important features of hybridisation are given below.
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) Theory (Gillespie theory):
The shape of a molecule is determined by repulsion between the electron pairs present in the valence shell of the central atom.
The order of repulsion is
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