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NEET Biology Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes In Human Welfare PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis

SYNOPSIS

  • Microbes in Household Products

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

    • Curd from milk
    • Fermentation of idli and dosa dough

    Propionibacterium shermanii

    • Production of Swiss cheese

  • Microbes in Industrial Products:

  • Antibiotic is a chemical substance which is obtained as a metabolic product from one living organism and has an inhibitory effect on another living organism.

  • Masses of bacteria associated with fungal filaments to form mesh-like structures are called flocs.

  • Sewage is the municipal waste water containing large amounts of organic matter and microbes.

  • Difference between Primary Treatment and Secondary Treatment of Sewage

  • Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) refers to the amount of oxygen which would be consumed if all the organic matter in one litre of water was oxidised by bacteria.

  • Biogas is a mixture of gases produced during the decay of biomass in the absence of oxygen.

  • Bacteria which grow anaerobically on cellulosic material and produce a large amount of methane along with CO2 and H2 are collectively called methanogens.

  • Biological control is the control of destructive insects with the utilisation of other insects.

  • The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis acts as a biopesticide.

  • Integrated pest management (IPM) aims at the minimum use of pesticides to prevent agrochemical pollution and to adopt natural methods of pest control.

  • Biofertilisers are organisms which can bring about soil nutrient enrichment.

  • Mycorrhiza is the symbiotic association of fungal hyphae and the roots of higher plants.

  • Cyanobacteria are autotrophic microbes which can fix atmospheric nitrogen. Examples: Anabaena, Nostoc, Oscillatoria